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Article: Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in Han Chinese children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Increased prevalence of the 2-repeat allele
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TitleDopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in Han Chinese children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Increased prevalence of the 2-repeat allele
 
AuthorsLeung, PWL5
Lee, CC1
Hung, SF1
Ho, TP1
Tang, CP1
Kwong, SL1
Leung, SY2
Yuen, ST2
LiehMak, F2
Oosterlaan, J3
Grady, D4
Harxhi, A4
Ding, YC4
Chi, HC4
Flodman, P4
Schuck, S4
Spence, MA4
Moyzis, R4
Swanson, J4
 
Issue Date2005
 
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0148-7299:1/
 
CitationAmerican Journal Of Medical Genetics - Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 2005, v. 133 B n. 1, p. 54-56 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30129
 
AbstractThere is an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the population prevalence of the 7R allele varies considerably across ethnicity and is very low in Asians. To test whether this 7R allele/ADHD association still held in a Chinese clinical sample, 32 Han Chinese children with a confirmed ADHD diagnosis and normal IQ who were methylphenidate- responders were genotyped. None of them had a DRD4 7R allele. Instead, we observed a significantly increased prevalence of the 2-repeat (2R) allele in this clinical sample (33%) compared to ethnically-matched controls (20%) (χ2(1d.f.) = 5.90, P = 0.015). This approximately 1.65-fold increase of the 2R allele in our probands is close to the observed increase of the 7R allele in European-ancestry ADHD children. Recent genetic studies have indicated that the 2R allele in Asians is likely derived from the 7R allele. Further, available biochemical data indicate that both the 2R and 7R protein have blunted responses to dopamine compared to the 4R protein. Based on these results, we propose that the observed increased prevalence of the 2R allele in our Han Chinese ADHD probands is still consistent with the TR allele hypothesis of ADHD in European-ancestry children. Recent studies have suggested that any variant from the conserved ancestral 4R allele might potentially alter biochemistry/phenotype. We hypothesize that an increased frequency of any non-4R allele may define the association of the DRD4 gene with ADHD that holds across ethnicity. The present findings, however, obtained with a small ADHD sample size, should be replicated. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
 
ISSN1552-4841
2013 Impact Factor: 3.271
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30129
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000226619600010
 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorLeung, PWL
 
dc.contributor.authorLee, CC
 
dc.contributor.authorHung, SF
 
dc.contributor.authorHo, TP
 
dc.contributor.authorTang, CP
 
dc.contributor.authorKwong, SL
 
dc.contributor.authorLeung, SY
 
dc.contributor.authorYuen, ST
 
dc.contributor.authorLiehMak, F
 
dc.contributor.authorOosterlaan, J
 
dc.contributor.authorGrady, D
 
dc.contributor.authorHarxhi, A
 
dc.contributor.authorDing, YC
 
dc.contributor.authorChi, HC
 
dc.contributor.authorFlodman, P
 
dc.contributor.authorSchuck, S
 
dc.contributor.authorSpence, MA
 
dc.contributor.authorMoyzis, R
 
dc.contributor.authorSwanson, J
 
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T09:48:11Z
 
dc.date.available2010-09-06T09:48:11Z
 
dc.date.issued2005
 
dc.description.abstractThere is an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the population prevalence of the 7R allele varies considerably across ethnicity and is very low in Asians. To test whether this 7R allele/ADHD association still held in a Chinese clinical sample, 32 Han Chinese children with a confirmed ADHD diagnosis and normal IQ who were methylphenidate- responders were genotyped. None of them had a DRD4 7R allele. Instead, we observed a significantly increased prevalence of the 2-repeat (2R) allele in this clinical sample (33%) compared to ethnically-matched controls (20%) (χ2(1d.f.) = 5.90, P = 0.015). This approximately 1.65-fold increase of the 2R allele in our probands is close to the observed increase of the 7R allele in European-ancestry ADHD children. Recent genetic studies have indicated that the 2R allele in Asians is likely derived from the 7R allele. Further, available biochemical data indicate that both the 2R and 7R protein have blunted responses to dopamine compared to the 4R protein. Based on these results, we propose that the observed increased prevalence of the 2R allele in our Han Chinese ADHD probands is still consistent with the TR allele hypothesis of ADHD in European-ancestry children. Recent studies have suggested that any variant from the conserved ancestral 4R allele might potentially alter biochemistry/phenotype. We hypothesize that an increased frequency of any non-4R allele may define the association of the DRD4 gene with ADHD that holds across ethnicity. The present findings, however, obtained with a small ADHD sample size, should be replicated. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
 
dc.description.natureLink_to_subscribed_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationAmerican Journal Of Medical Genetics - Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 2005, v. 133 B n. 1, p. 54-56 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30129
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30129
 
dc.identifier.epage56
 
dc.identifier.hkuros108393
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000226619600010
 
dc.identifier.issn1552-4841
2013 Impact Factor: 3.271
 
dc.identifier.issue1
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.pmid15578612
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-19944432137
 
dc.identifier.spage54
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/88802
 
dc.identifier.volume133 B
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0148-7299:1/
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited States
 
dc.relation.ispartofAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics - Neuropsychiatric Genetics
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.rightsAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics. Copyright © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
dc.subject.meshAdolescent
 
dc.subject.meshAlleles
 
dc.subject.meshAttention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - genetics
 
dc.subject.meshChild
 
dc.subject.meshChina
 
dc.subject.meshGene Frequency
 
dc.subject.meshGenotype
 
dc.subject.meshHumans
 
dc.subject.meshMale
 
dc.subject.meshMinisatellite Repeats - genetics
 
dc.subject.meshReceptors, Dopamine D2 - genetics
 
dc.subject.meshReceptors, Dopamine D4
 
dc.titleDopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in Han Chinese children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Increased prevalence of the 2-repeat allele
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<contributor.author>Yuen, ST</contributor.author>
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Author Affiliations
  1. Hong Kong Hospital Authority
  2. The University of Hong Kong
  3. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
  4. UC Irvine
  5. Chinese University of Hong Kong