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Article: Service with Emoticons: How Customers Interpret Employee Use of Emoticons in Online Service Encounters

TitleService with Emoticons: How Customers Interpret Employee Use of Emoticons in Online Service Encounters
Authors
KeywordsEmoticons
Warmth
Competence
Relationship norm orientation
Unsatisfactory services
Extra-role services
Issue Date2019
PublisherOxford University Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://jcr.oxfordjournals.org/
Citation
Journal of Consumer Research, 2019, v. 45 n. 5, p. 973–987 How to Cite?
AbstractVirtually no research has examined the role of emoticons in commercial relationships, and research outside the marketing domain reports mixed findings. This article aims to resolve these mixed findings by considering that emoticon senders are often simultaneously evaluated on two fundamental dimensions, warmth and competence, and the accessibility of one dimension over the other is critically contingent on salient relationship norms (communal vs. exchange norms) in customers’ minds due to individual and situational factors. Through laboratory and field experiments, the current research shows that customers perceive service employees who use emoticons as higher in warmth but lower in competence compared to those who do not (study 1). We further demonstrate that when a service employee uses emoticons, communal-oriented (exchange-oriented) customers are more likely to infer higher warmth (lower competence) and thus to be more (less) satisfied with the service (study 2). We also examine two practically important service situations that can make a certain type of relationship norm more salient: unsatisfactory services (study 3) and employees’ extra-role services (study 4). We speculate on possible mechanisms underlying these effects and discuss theoretical and practical implications along with opportunities for future research.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/258986
ISSN
2017 Impact Factor: 3.535
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 4.896

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLi, XS-
dc.contributor.authorChan, KW-
dc.contributor.authorKim, S-
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-03T03:59:38Z-
dc.date.available2018-09-03T03:59:38Z-
dc.date.issued2019-
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Consumer Research, 2019, v. 45 n. 5, p. 973–987-
dc.identifier.issn0093-5301-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/258986-
dc.description.abstractVirtually no research has examined the role of emoticons in commercial relationships, and research outside the marketing domain reports mixed findings. This article aims to resolve these mixed findings by considering that emoticon senders are often simultaneously evaluated on two fundamental dimensions, warmth and competence, and the accessibility of one dimension over the other is critically contingent on salient relationship norms (communal vs. exchange norms) in customers’ minds due to individual and situational factors. Through laboratory and field experiments, the current research shows that customers perceive service employees who use emoticons as higher in warmth but lower in competence compared to those who do not (study 1). We further demonstrate that when a service employee uses emoticons, communal-oriented (exchange-oriented) customers are more likely to infer higher warmth (lower competence) and thus to be more (less) satisfied with the service (study 2). We also examine two practically important service situations that can make a certain type of relationship norm more salient: unsatisfactory services (study 3) and employees’ extra-role services (study 4). We speculate on possible mechanisms underlying these effects and discuss theoretical and practical implications along with opportunities for future research.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherOxford University Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://jcr.oxfordjournals.org/-
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Consumer Research-
dc.rightsThis is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Consumer Research following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jcr/ucy016-
dc.subjectEmoticons-
dc.subjectWarmth-
dc.subjectCompetence-
dc.subjectRelationship norm orientation-
dc.subjectUnsatisfactory services-
dc.subjectExtra-role services-
dc.titleService with Emoticons: How Customers Interpret Employee Use of Emoticons in Online Service Encounters-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.identifier.emailKim, S: sarakim@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.authorityKim, S=rp01613-
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/jcr/ucy016-
dc.identifier.hkuros288704-
dc.identifier.volume45-
dc.identifier.issue5-
dc.identifier.spage973–987-
dc.identifier.epage973–987-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom-

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