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Article: Update on the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection
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TitleUpdate on the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection
 
AuthorsHsu, A1
Lai, CL1
Yuen, MF1
 
KeywordsHepatitis B virus
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Mutation
Risk factors
Risk prediction
 
Issue Date2011
 
PublisherCurrent Medicine Group LLC
 
CitationCurrent Hepatitis Reports, 2011, v. 10, n. 2, p. 106-111 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11901-011-0094-2
 
AbstractChronic hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality, with hepatocellular carcinoma being the most life-threatening complication. Because of the highly variable clinical course of the disease, enormous research efforts have been made with the aim of revealing the factors in the natural history that are relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis. These include epidemiological studies of predisposing risk groups, viral studies of mutations within the hepatitis B viral genome, and clinical correlation of these risk factors in predicting the likelihood of development of hepatocellular cancer in susceptible hosts. This update addresses these risks, with emphasis on the latest research relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis. © 2011 The Author(s).
 
ISSN1540-3416
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11901-011-0094-2
 
PubMed Central IDPMC3085101
 
ReferencesChan HL, Sung JJ. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2006;26:153–61.. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-939753

Marchio A, Pineau P, Meddeb M, et al. Distinct chromosomal abnormality pattern in primary liver cancer of non-B, non-C patients. Oncogene. 2000;19:3733–8.. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203713

Nguyen VT, Law MG, Dore GJ. Hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological characteristics and disease burden. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:453–63.. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01117.x

Chen CJ, Yang HI, Su J, et al. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma across a biological gradient of serum hepatitis B virus DNA level. JAMA. 2006;295:65–73.. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.1.65

• Chen CL, Yang HI, Yang WS, et al. Metabolic factors and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma by chronic hepatitis B/C infection: a follow-up study in Taiwan. Gastroenterology 2008;135:111–121. This article describes a large Taiwanese cohort study and follow-up showing that in hepatitis B- or C-infected patients, obesity and diabetes were significant risk factors for development of HCC.. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.03.073

Yuen MF, Hou JL, Chutaputti A. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Asia Pacific region. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:346–53.. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05784.x

El-Serag HB. Hepatocellular carcinoma: recent trends in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:S27–34.. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2004.09.013

Yu MW, Chang HC, Liaw YF, et al. Familial risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among chronic hepatitis B carriers and their relatives. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92:1159–64.. doi: 10.1093/jnci/92.14.1159

Morgan TR, Mandayam S, Jamal MM. Alcohol and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2004;127(5 Suppl 1):S87–96.. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2004.09.020

Fattovich G, Bortolotti F, Donato F. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: special emphasis on disease progression and prognostic factors. J Hepatol. 2008;48:335–52.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2007.11.011

Kim HC, Nam CM, Jee SH, et al. Normal serum aminotransferase concentration and risk of mortality from liver disease: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2004;328:983–8.. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38050.593634.63

Yuen MF, Yuan HJ, Wong DKH, et al. Prognostic determinants for chronic hepatitis B in Asians: therapeutic implications. Gut. 2005;54:1610–4.. doi: 10.1136/gut.2005.065136

Sherman M. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology, risk factors, and screening. Semin Liver Dis. 2005;25:143–54.. doi: 10.1055/s-2005-871194

Yang HI, Lu SN, Liaw YF, et al. Hepatitis B e antigen and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:168–74.. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa013215

Iloeje UH, Yang HI, Su J, et al. Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:678–86.. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.11.016

Ito K, Arai M, Imazeki F, et al. Risks of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Scand J Gastroenterology. 2010;45:243–9.. doi: 10.3109/00365520903450113

Kao JH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, et al. Basal core promoter mutations of hepatitis B virus increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B carriers. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:327–34.. doi: 10.1053/gast.2003.50053

Kuang SY, Jackson PE, Wang JB, et al. Specific mutations of hepatitis B virus in plasma predict liver cancer development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:3575–80.. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0308232100

Guo X, Jin Y, Quan GS, Tu H. Sequential accumulation of the mutations in core promoter of hepatitis B virus is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in Qidong, China. J Hepatol. 2008;49:718–25.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2008.06.026

Yin J, Xie J, Liu S, et al. Association between the various mutations in viral core promoter region to different stages of hepatitis B, ranging of asymptomatic carrier state to hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106:81–92.. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2010.399

Qu LS, Liu TT, Jin F, et al. Combined pre-S deletion and core promoter mutations related to hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study in China. Hepatol Res. 2011;41:54–63.. doi: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2010.00732.x

Mun HS, Lee SA, Kim H, Hwang ES, Kook YH, Kim BJ. Novel F141L preS2 mutation of hepatitis B virus increasing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic patients with genotype C infections. J Virol 2010 doi:10.1128/JVI.01524-10.

Tangkijvanich P, Sa-nguanmoo P, Mahachia V, et al. A case-control study on sequence variations in the enhancer II/core promoter/precore and X genes of hepatitis B virus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol Int. 2010;4:577–84.. doi: 10.1007/s12072-010-9197-z

Chen CH, Changchien CS, Lee CM, et al. Combined mutations in pre-s/surface and core promoter/precore regions of hepatitis B virus increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1634–42.. doi: 10.1086/592990

• Yeh CT, So M, Ng J, et al. Hepatitis B virus-DNA level and basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutation in liver tissue independently predict postoperative survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 2010;52:1922–33. This article is the first publication to look at hepatitis B viral mutations in predicting postoperative survival in histologically proven and surgically resected HCC.. doi: 10.1002/hep.23898

Huang HP, Hsu HY, Chen CL, et al. Pre-S2 deletions of hepatitis B virus and hepatocellular carcinoma in children. Pediatric Research. 2010;67:90–4.. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181c1b0b7

Tong MJ, Blatt LM, Kao JH, et al. Basal core promoter T1762/A1764 and precore A1896 gene mutations in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison with chronic carriers. Liver Int. 2007;27:1356–63.. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01585.x

Kim CM, Koike K. Saito, et al. HBx gene of hepatitis B virus induces liver cancer in transgenic mice. Nature. 1991;351:317–20.. doi: 10.1038/351317a0

Muroyama R, Kato N, Yoshida H, et al. Nucleotide change of codon 38 in the X gene of hepatitis B virus genotype C is associated with an increased of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2006;45:805–12.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2006.07.025

Yeh CT, Shen CH, Tai DI, et al. Identification and characterization of a previous hepatitis B virus X protein mutant in Taiwanese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncogene. 2000;19:5213–20.. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203903

• Neuveut C, Wei Y, Buendia MA. Mechanisms of HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis. J Hepatol 2010;52:594–604. This article provides a comprehensive review of the molecular mechanisms of HBV-carcinogenesis with emphasis on HBx protein and its regulatory mechanisms.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2009.10.033

Sugauchi F, Ohno T, Orito E, et al. Influence of hepatitis B virus genotypes on the development of preS deletions and advanced liver disease. J Med Virol. 2003;70:537–44.. doi: 10.1002/jmv.10428

•• Yuen MF, Tanaka Y, Shinkai N, et al. Risk for hepatocellular carcinoma with respect to hepatitis B virus genotypes B/C, specific mutations of enhancer II/core promoter/precore regions and HBV DNA levels. Gut 2008;57:98–102. Comparing 248 HCC cases with 248 HBV controls, we found that core promoter mutation, T1653 (enhancer region), HBV DNA levels greater than 4 log copies/mL, and cirrhosis were independent factors for development of HCC.. doi: 10.1136/gut.2007.119859

Liu SJ, Xie JX, Yin JH, et al. A matched case-control study of hepatitis B virus mutations in the preS and core promoter regions associated independently with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Med Virol. 2011;83:45–53.. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21829

Kao JH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, et al. Hepatitis B genotypes correlate with clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2000;118:554–9.. doi: 10.1016/S0016-5085(00)70261-7

Yuen MF, Sablon E, Yuan HJ, et al. Significance of hepatitis B genotype in acute exacerbation, HBeAg seroconversion, cirrhosis-related complications, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2003;37:562–7.. doi: 10.1053/jhep.2003.50098

Sumi H, Yokosuka O, Seki N, et al. Influence of hepatitis B virus genotypes on the progression of chronic type B liver disease. Hepatology. 2003;37:19–26.. doi: 10.1053/jhep.2003.50036

Yuen MF, Tanaka Y, Fong DY, et al. Independent risk factors and predictive score for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol. 2009;50:80–8.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2008.07.023

Yang HI, Sherman M, Su J, et al. Nomograms for risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(14):2437–44.. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.4456

Wong V, Lam S, Mo F, et al. Clinical scoring system to predict hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B carriers. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1660–5.. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.26.2675

Gao C, Zhao HC, Li JT, et al. Diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of Chinese patients with and without HBV-related cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4467–75.

•• Liu S, Zhang H, Gu C, et al. Associations between hepatitis B virus mutations and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;15:1066–1082. This article describes a recent meta-analysis including 43 studies showing HBV PreS mutations, C1653T, T1753V, and A1762T/G1764A are associated with an increased risk of HCC.
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorHsu, A
 
dc.contributor.authorLai, CL
 
dc.contributor.authorYuen, MF
 
dc.date.accessioned2012-02-21T05:44:11Z
 
dc.date.available2012-02-21T05:44:11Z
 
dc.date.issued2011
 
dc.description.abstractChronic hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality, with hepatocellular carcinoma being the most life-threatening complication. Because of the highly variable clinical course of the disease, enormous research efforts have been made with the aim of revealing the factors in the natural history that are relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis. These include epidemiological studies of predisposing risk groups, viral studies of mutations within the hepatitis B viral genome, and clinical correlation of these risk factors in predicting the likelihood of development of hepatocellular cancer in susceptible hosts. This update addresses these risks, with emphasis on the latest research relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis. © 2011 The Author(s).
 
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version
 
dc.description.otherSpringer Open Choice, 21 Feb 2012
 
dc.identifier.citationCurrent Hepatitis Reports, 2011, v. 10, n. 2, p. 106-111 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11901-011-0094-2
 
dc.identifier.citeulike8919883
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11901-011-0094-2
 
dc.identifier.eissn1541-0706
 
dc.identifier.epage111
 
dc.identifier.hkuros189961
 
dc.identifier.issn1540-3416
 
dc.identifier.issue2
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3085101
 
dc.identifier.pmid21654908
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-79957508039
 
dc.identifier.spage106
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/145065
 
dc.identifier.volume10
 
dc.languageEng
 
dc.publisherCurrent Medicine Group LLC
 
dc.relation.ispartofCurrent Hepatitis Reports
 
dc.relation.referencesChan HL, Sung JJ. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2006;26:153–61.. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-939753
 
dc.relation.referencesMarchio A, Pineau P, Meddeb M, et al. Distinct chromosomal abnormality pattern in primary liver cancer of non-B, non-C patients. Oncogene. 2000;19:3733–8.. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203713
 
dc.relation.referencesNguyen VT, Law MG, Dore GJ. Hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological characteristics and disease burden. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:453–63.. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01117.x
 
dc.relation.referencesChen CJ, Yang HI, Su J, et al. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma across a biological gradient of serum hepatitis B virus DNA level. JAMA. 2006;295:65–73.. doi: 10.1001/jama.295.1.65
 
dc.relation.references• Chen CL, Yang HI, Yang WS, et al. Metabolic factors and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma by chronic hepatitis B/C infection: a follow-up study in Taiwan. Gastroenterology 2008;135:111–121. This article describes a large Taiwanese cohort study and follow-up showing that in hepatitis B- or C-infected patients, obesity and diabetes were significant risk factors for development of HCC.. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.03.073
 
dc.relation.referencesYuen MF, Hou JL, Chutaputti A. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the Asia Pacific region. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:346–53.. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2009.05784.x
 
dc.relation.referencesEl-Serag HB. Hepatocellular carcinoma: recent trends in the United States. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:S27–34.. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2004.09.013
 
dc.relation.referencesYu MW, Chang HC, Liaw YF, et al. Familial risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among chronic hepatitis B carriers and their relatives. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92:1159–64.. doi: 10.1093/jnci/92.14.1159
 
dc.relation.referencesMorgan TR, Mandayam S, Jamal MM. Alcohol and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2004;127(5 Suppl 1):S87–96.. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2004.09.020
 
dc.relation.referencesFattovich G, Bortolotti F, Donato F. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: special emphasis on disease progression and prognostic factors. J Hepatol. 2008;48:335–52.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2007.11.011
 
dc.relation.referencesKim HC, Nam CM, Jee SH, et al. Normal serum aminotransferase concentration and risk of mortality from liver disease: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2004;328:983–8.. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38050.593634.63
 
dc.relation.referencesYuen MF, Yuan HJ, Wong DKH, et al. Prognostic determinants for chronic hepatitis B in Asians: therapeutic implications. Gut. 2005;54:1610–4.. doi: 10.1136/gut.2005.065136
 
dc.relation.referencesSherman M. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology, risk factors, and screening. Semin Liver Dis. 2005;25:143–54.. doi: 10.1055/s-2005-871194
 
dc.relation.referencesYang HI, Lu SN, Liaw YF, et al. Hepatitis B e antigen and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:168–74.. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa013215
 
dc.relation.referencesIloeje UH, Yang HI, Su J, et al. Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:678–86.. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2005.11.016
 
dc.relation.referencesIto K, Arai M, Imazeki F, et al. Risks of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Scand J Gastroenterology. 2010;45:243–9.. doi: 10.3109/00365520903450113
 
dc.relation.referencesKao JH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, et al. Basal core promoter mutations of hepatitis B virus increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B carriers. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:327–34.. doi: 10.1053/gast.2003.50053
 
dc.relation.referencesKuang SY, Jackson PE, Wang JB, et al. Specific mutations of hepatitis B virus in plasma predict liver cancer development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101:3575–80.. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0308232100
 
dc.relation.referencesGuo X, Jin Y, Quan GS, Tu H. Sequential accumulation of the mutations in core promoter of hepatitis B virus is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in Qidong, China. J Hepatol. 2008;49:718–25.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2008.06.026
 
dc.relation.referencesYin J, Xie J, Liu S, et al. Association between the various mutations in viral core promoter region to different stages of hepatitis B, ranging of asymptomatic carrier state to hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106:81–92.. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2010.399
 
dc.relation.referencesQu LS, Liu TT, Jin F, et al. Combined pre-S deletion and core promoter mutations related to hepatocellular carcinoma: a nested case-control study in China. Hepatol Res. 2011;41:54–63.. doi: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2010.00732.x
 
dc.relation.referencesMun HS, Lee SA, Kim H, Hwang ES, Kook YH, Kim BJ. Novel F141L preS2 mutation of hepatitis B virus increasing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic patients with genotype C infections. J Virol 2010 doi:10.1128/JVI.01524-10.
 
dc.relation.referencesTangkijvanich P, Sa-nguanmoo P, Mahachia V, et al. A case-control study on sequence variations in the enhancer II/core promoter/precore and X genes of hepatitis B virus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol Int. 2010;4:577–84.. doi: 10.1007/s12072-010-9197-z
 
dc.relation.referencesChen CH, Changchien CS, Lee CM, et al. Combined mutations in pre-s/surface and core promoter/precore regions of hepatitis B virus increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1634–42.. doi: 10.1086/592990
 
dc.relation.references• Yeh CT, So M, Ng J, et al. Hepatitis B virus-DNA level and basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutation in liver tissue independently predict postoperative survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 2010;52:1922–33. This article is the first publication to look at hepatitis B viral mutations in predicting postoperative survival in histologically proven and surgically resected HCC.. doi: 10.1002/hep.23898
 
dc.relation.referencesHuang HP, Hsu HY, Chen CL, et al. Pre-S2 deletions of hepatitis B virus and hepatocellular carcinoma in children. Pediatric Research. 2010;67:90–4.. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181c1b0b7
 
dc.relation.referencesTong MJ, Blatt LM, Kao JH, et al. Basal core promoter T1762/A1764 and precore A1896 gene mutations in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison with chronic carriers. Liver Int. 2007;27:1356–63.. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2007.01585.x
 
dc.relation.referencesKim CM, Koike K. Saito, et al. HBx gene of hepatitis B virus induces liver cancer in transgenic mice. Nature. 1991;351:317–20.. doi: 10.1038/351317a0
 
dc.relation.referencesMuroyama R, Kato N, Yoshida H, et al. Nucleotide change of codon 38 in the X gene of hepatitis B virus genotype C is associated with an increased of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2006;45:805–12.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2006.07.025
 
dc.relation.referencesYeh CT, Shen CH, Tai DI, et al. Identification and characterization of a previous hepatitis B virus X protein mutant in Taiwanese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncogene. 2000;19:5213–20.. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203903
 
dc.relation.references• Neuveut C, Wei Y, Buendia MA. Mechanisms of HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis. J Hepatol 2010;52:594–604. This article provides a comprehensive review of the molecular mechanisms of HBV-carcinogenesis with emphasis on HBx protein and its regulatory mechanisms.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2009.10.033
 
dc.relation.referencesSugauchi F, Ohno T, Orito E, et al. Influence of hepatitis B virus genotypes on the development of preS deletions and advanced liver disease. J Med Virol. 2003;70:537–44.. doi: 10.1002/jmv.10428
 
dc.relation.references•• Yuen MF, Tanaka Y, Shinkai N, et al. Risk for hepatocellular carcinoma with respect to hepatitis B virus genotypes B/C, specific mutations of enhancer II/core promoter/precore regions and HBV DNA levels. Gut 2008;57:98–102. Comparing 248 HCC cases with 248 HBV controls, we found that core promoter mutation, T1653 (enhancer region), HBV DNA levels greater than 4 log copies/mL, and cirrhosis were independent factors for development of HCC.. doi: 10.1136/gut.2007.119859
 
dc.relation.referencesLiu SJ, Xie JX, Yin JH, et al. A matched case-control study of hepatitis B virus mutations in the preS and core promoter regions associated independently with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Med Virol. 2011;83:45–53.. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21829
 
dc.relation.referencesKao JH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, et al. Hepatitis B genotypes correlate with clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2000;118:554–9.. doi: 10.1016/S0016-5085(00)70261-7
 
dc.relation.referencesYuen MF, Sablon E, Yuan HJ, et al. Significance of hepatitis B genotype in acute exacerbation, HBeAg seroconversion, cirrhosis-related complications, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2003;37:562–7.. doi: 10.1053/jhep.2003.50098
 
dc.relation.referencesSumi H, Yokosuka O, Seki N, et al. Influence of hepatitis B virus genotypes on the progression of chronic type B liver disease. Hepatology. 2003;37:19–26.. doi: 10.1053/jhep.2003.50036
 
dc.relation.referencesYuen MF, Tanaka Y, Fong DY, et al. Independent risk factors and predictive score for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B. J Hepatol. 2009;50:80–8.. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2008.07.023
 
dc.relation.referencesYang HI, Sherman M, Su J, et al. Nomograms for risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(14):2437–44.. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.4456
 
dc.relation.referencesWong V, Lam S, Mo F, et al. Clinical scoring system to predict hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B carriers. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1660–5.. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.26.2675
 
dc.relation.referencesGao C, Zhao HC, Li JT, et al. Diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of Chinese patients with and without HBV-related cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4467–75.
 
dc.relation.references•• Liu S, Zhang H, Gu C, et al. Associations between hepatitis B virus mutations and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;15:1066–1082. This article describes a recent meta-analysis including 43 studies showing HBV PreS mutations, C1653T, T1753V, and A1762T/G1764A are associated with an increased risk of HCC.
 
dc.rightsThe Author(s)
 
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License
 
dc.rightsThe original publication is available at www.springerlink.com
 
dc.subjectHepatitis B virus
 
dc.subjectHepatocellular carcinoma
 
dc.subjectMutation
 
dc.subjectRisk factors
 
dc.subjectRisk prediction
 
dc.titleUpdate on the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<relation.references>Chan HL, Sung JJ. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2006;26:153&#8211;61.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1055/s-2006-939753</relation.references>
<relation.references>Marchio A, Pineau P, Meddeb M, et al. Distinct chromosomal abnormality pattern in primary liver cancer of non-B, non-C patients. Oncogene. 2000;19:3733&#8211;8.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1203713</relation.references>
<relation.references>Nguyen VT, Law MG, Dore GJ. Hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological characteristics and disease burden. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:453&#8211;63.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01117.x</relation.references>
<relation.references>Chen CJ, Yang HI, Su J, et al. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma across a biological gradient of serum hepatitis B virus DNA level. JAMA. 2006;295:65&#8211;73.</relation.references>
<relation.references>doi: 10.1001/jama.295.1.65</relation.references>
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<identifier.volume>10</identifier.volume>
<identifier.issue>2</identifier.issue>
<identifier.spage>106</identifier.spage>
<identifier.epage>111</identifier.epage>
<identifier.eissn>1541-0706</identifier.eissn>
<description.other>Springer Open Choice, 21 Feb 2012</description.other>
<identifier.citeulike>8919883</identifier.citeulike>
<bitstream.url>http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/145065/1/11901_2011_Article_94.pdf</bitstream.url>
</item>
Author Affiliations
  1. The University of Hong Kong