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Article: Modulation of steroidogenesis by coastal waters and sewage effluents of Hong Kong, China, using the H295R assay

TitleModulation of steroidogenesis by coastal waters and sewage effluents of Hong Kong, China, using the H295R assay
Authors
KeywordsAquatic environment
China
Coastal waters
Endocrine disruptors
Environmental samples
H295R cell bioassay
Hong Kong
Hormones
Influents
Marine waters
Sewage effluents
Sex steroid hormones
Steroidogenesis
Wastewater treatment plants
Issue Date2008
PublisherSpringer. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.springer.com/environment/journal/11356
Citation
Environmental Science And Pollution Research, 2008, v. 15 n. 4, p. 332-343 How to Cite?
Abstract
Background, aim, and scope: The presence of a variety of pollutants in the aquatic environment that can potentially interfere with the production of sex steroid hormones in wildlife and humans has been of increasing concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of extracts from Hong Kong marine waters, and influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants on steroidogenesis using the H295R cell bioassay. After exposing H295R cells to extracts of water, the expression of four steroidogenic genes and the production of three steroid hormones were measured. Materials and methods: Water samples were collected during the summer of 2005 from 24 coastal marine areas and from the influents and effluents of two major waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in Hong Kong, China. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE). H295R cells were exposed for 48 h to dilutions of these extracts. Modulations of the expression of the steroidogenic genes CYP19, CYP17, 3βHSD2, and CYP11β2 were determined by measuring mRNA concentrations by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). Production of the hormones progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) was quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results: Extracts from samples collected in two fish culture areas inhibited growth and proliferation of H295R cells at concentrations greater or equal to 105 L equivalents. The cells were exposed to the equivalent concentration of active substances in 10,000 L of water. Thus, to observe the same level of effect as observed in vitro on aquatic organisms would require a bioaccumulation factor of this same magnitude. None of the other 22 marine samples affected growth of the cells at any dilution tested. Twelve of the marine water samples completely inhibited the expression of CYP19 without affecting E2 production; inhibition of CYP17 expression was observed only in one of the samples while expression of CYP11β2 was induced as much as five- and ninefold after exposure of cells to extracts from two locations. The expression of the progesterone gene 3βHSD2 was not affected by any of the samples; only one sample induced approximately fourfold the production of E2. Although more than twofold inductions were observed for P and T production, none of these values were statistically significant to conclude effects on the production of these two hormones. While influents from WWTPs did not affect gene expression, an approximately 30% inhibition in the production of E2 and a 40% increase in P occurred for the exposure with influents from the Sha Tin and Stonecutters WWTPs, respectively. Effluents from WWTPs did not affect the production of any of the studied hormones, but a decrement in the expression of the aldosterone gene CYP11β2 was observed for the Sha Tin WWTP exposure. No direct correlation could be established between gene expression and hormone production. Discussion: Observed cytotoxicity in the two samples from fish culture areas suggest the presence of toxic compounds; chemical analysis is required for their full identification. Although effluents from WWTPs did not affect hormone production, other types of endocrine activity such as receptor-mediated effects cannot be ruled out. Interactions due to the complexity of the samples and alternative steroidogenic pathways might explain the lack of correlation between gene expression and hormone production results. Conclusions: Changes observed in gene expression and hormone production suggest the presence in Hong Kong coastal waters of pollutants with endocrine disruption potential and others of significant toxic effects. The aromatase and aldosterone genes seem to be the most affected by the exposures, while E2 and P are the hormones with more significant changes observed. Results also suggest effectiveness in the removing of compounds with endocrine activity by the WWTPs studied, as effluent samples did not significantly affect hormone production. The H295R cell showed to be a valuable toll in the battery required for the analysis of endocrine disrupting activities of complex environmental samples. Recommendations and perspectives: Due to the intrinsic complexity of environmental samples, a combination of analytical tools is required to realistically assess environmental conditions, especially in aquatic systems. In the evaluation of endocrine disrupting activities, the H295R cell bioassay should be used in combination with other genomic, biological, chemical, and hydrological tests to establish viable modes for endocrine disruption and identify compounds responsible for the observed effects. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/92785
ISSN
2013 Impact Factor: 2.757
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.885
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

Author Affiliations
  1. Masaryk University
  2. University of Saskatchewan
  3. Nanjing University
  4. Michigan State University
  5. ENTRIX Inc.
  6. City University of Hong Kong
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorGracia, Ten_HK
dc.contributor.authorJones, PDen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHigley, EBen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHilscherova, Ken_HK
dc.contributor.authorNewsted, JLen_HK
dc.contributor.authorMurphy, MBen_HK
dc.contributor.authorChan, AKYen_HK
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Xen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHecker, Men_HK
dc.contributor.authorLam, PKSen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWu, RSSen_HK
dc.contributor.authorGiesy, JPen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-17T10:57:05Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-17T10:57:05Z-
dc.date.issued2008en_HK
dc.identifier.citationEnvironmental Science And Pollution Research, 2008, v. 15 n. 4, p. 332-343en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0944-1344en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/92785-
dc.description.abstractBackground, aim, and scope: The presence of a variety of pollutants in the aquatic environment that can potentially interfere with the production of sex steroid hormones in wildlife and humans has been of increasing concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of extracts from Hong Kong marine waters, and influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants on steroidogenesis using the H295R cell bioassay. After exposing H295R cells to extracts of water, the expression of four steroidogenic genes and the production of three steroid hormones were measured. Materials and methods: Water samples were collected during the summer of 2005 from 24 coastal marine areas and from the influents and effluents of two major waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in Hong Kong, China. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE). H295R cells were exposed for 48 h to dilutions of these extracts. Modulations of the expression of the steroidogenic genes CYP19, CYP17, 3βHSD2, and CYP11β2 were determined by measuring mRNA concentrations by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). Production of the hormones progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) was quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results: Extracts from samples collected in two fish culture areas inhibited growth and proliferation of H295R cells at concentrations greater or equal to 105 L equivalents. The cells were exposed to the equivalent concentration of active substances in 10,000 L of water. Thus, to observe the same level of effect as observed in vitro on aquatic organisms would require a bioaccumulation factor of this same magnitude. None of the other 22 marine samples affected growth of the cells at any dilution tested. Twelve of the marine water samples completely inhibited the expression of CYP19 without affecting E2 production; inhibition of CYP17 expression was observed only in one of the samples while expression of CYP11β2 was induced as much as five- and ninefold after exposure of cells to extracts from two locations. The expression of the progesterone gene 3βHSD2 was not affected by any of the samples; only one sample induced approximately fourfold the production of E2. Although more than twofold inductions were observed for P and T production, none of these values were statistically significant to conclude effects on the production of these two hormones. While influents from WWTPs did not affect gene expression, an approximately 30% inhibition in the production of E2 and a 40% increase in P occurred for the exposure with influents from the Sha Tin and Stonecutters WWTPs, respectively. Effluents from WWTPs did not affect the production of any of the studied hormones, but a decrement in the expression of the aldosterone gene CYP11β2 was observed for the Sha Tin WWTP exposure. No direct correlation could be established between gene expression and hormone production. Discussion: Observed cytotoxicity in the two samples from fish culture areas suggest the presence of toxic compounds; chemical analysis is required for their full identification. Although effluents from WWTPs did not affect hormone production, other types of endocrine activity such as receptor-mediated effects cannot be ruled out. Interactions due to the complexity of the samples and alternative steroidogenic pathways might explain the lack of correlation between gene expression and hormone production results. Conclusions: Changes observed in gene expression and hormone production suggest the presence in Hong Kong coastal waters of pollutants with endocrine disruption potential and others of significant toxic effects. The aromatase and aldosterone genes seem to be the most affected by the exposures, while E2 and P are the hormones with more significant changes observed. Results also suggest effectiveness in the removing of compounds with endocrine activity by the WWTPs studied, as effluent samples did not significantly affect hormone production. The H295R cell showed to be a valuable toll in the battery required for the analysis of endocrine disrupting activities of complex environmental samples. Recommendations and perspectives: Due to the intrinsic complexity of environmental samples, a combination of analytical tools is required to realistically assess environmental conditions, especially in aquatic systems. In the evaluation of endocrine disrupting activities, the H295R cell bioassay should be used in combination with other genomic, biological, chemical, and hydrological tests to establish viable modes for endocrine disruption and identify compounds responsible for the observed effects. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherSpringer. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.springer.com/environment/journal/11356en_HK
dc.relation.ispartofEnvironmental Science and Pollution Researchen_HK
dc.subjectAquatic environmenten_HK
dc.subjectChinaen_HK
dc.subjectCoastal watersen_HK
dc.subjectEndocrine disruptorsen_HK
dc.subjectEnvironmental samplesen_HK
dc.subjectH295R cell bioassayen_HK
dc.subjectHong Kongen_HK
dc.subjectHormonesen_HK
dc.subjectInfluentsen_HK
dc.subjectMarine watersen_HK
dc.subjectSewage effluentsen_HK
dc.subjectSex steroid hormonesen_HK
dc.subjectSteroidogenesisen_HK
dc.subjectWastewater treatment plantsen_HK
dc.titleModulation of steroidogenesis by coastal waters and sewage effluents of Hong Kong, China, using the H295R assayen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.emailWu, RSS: rudolfwu@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityWu, RSS=rp01398en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s11356-008-0011-6en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid18493807en_HK
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-45849087643en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-45849087643&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume15en_HK
dc.identifier.issue4en_HK
dc.identifier.spage332en_HK
dc.identifier.epage343en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000256910500008-
dc.publisher.placeGermanyen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridGracia, T=6506058618en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridJones, PD=34771015600en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHigley, EB=13004073100en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHilscherova, K=6603438103en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridNewsted, JL=6603677236en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMurphy, MB=7403900446en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChan, AKY=24278666900en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZhang, X=8606600100en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHecker, M=35247848500en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLam, PKS=7202365776en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWu, RSS=7402945079en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridGiesy, JP=35459135300en_HK

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