File Download

There are no files associated with this item.

  Links for fulltext
     (May Require Subscription)
  • Find via Find It@HKUL
Supplementary

Article: External versus Internal Focus Instructions: Is the learner paying attention?

TitleExternal versus Internal Focus Instructions: Is the learner paying attention?
Authors
KeywordsAttention
Focus
Implicit
Instruction and Motor Learning
Issue Date2002
PublisherKorea Sport Science Institute. The Journal's web site is located at http://kisseng.kstudy.com/journal/list_name.asp
Citation
International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 2002, v. 14 n. 2, p. 70-88 How to Cite?
AbstractInstructions to focus on the outcome of an action during its performance have consistently been shown to induce greater accuracy than instructions to focus internally on the mechanics of the movement (e.g. Shea and Wulf, 1999). This phenomenon may be the result of inducing an explicit mode of control in those performers who are instructed to focus internally. Explicit processing of task relevant information has previously been associated with poor performance relative to not focusing on these aspects (externally). That is, an external focus may be associated with little explicit processing, and thus, a minimal load on working memory, whereas, an internal focus places a large load on working memory due to the explicit processing of mechanical rules about how best to perform the task. Two experiments examined this possibility using a balance task. Both experiments demonstrated that an external focus of attention is indeed characterised by minimal explicit processing as demonstrated by the ability of learners given external focus instructions to perform a secondary task that loads working memory without demonstrating a reduction in primary task performance. Identical results were found for performers given internal focus instructions; however, it was apparent from post experimental questionnaires that these participants had switched to an external focus of attention despite instructions to the contrary. It is argued that an implicit, in this case external focus, mode of learning and performance is the default option, particularly when the ineffectiveness of explicit or internal focusing is salient.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/87837
ISSN

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorMaxwell, JPen_HK
dc.contributor.authorMasters, RSWen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T09:35:07Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-06T09:35:07Z-
dc.date.issued2002en_HK
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 2002, v. 14 n. 2, p. 70-88en_HK
dc.identifier.issn1598-2939-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/87837-
dc.description.abstractInstructions to focus on the outcome of an action during its performance have consistently been shown to induce greater accuracy than instructions to focus internally on the mechanics of the movement (e.g. Shea and Wulf, 1999). This phenomenon may be the result of inducing an explicit mode of control in those performers who are instructed to focus internally. Explicit processing of task relevant information has previously been associated with poor performance relative to not focusing on these aspects (externally). That is, an external focus may be associated with little explicit processing, and thus, a minimal load on working memory, whereas, an internal focus places a large load on working memory due to the explicit processing of mechanical rules about how best to perform the task. Two experiments examined this possibility using a balance task. Both experiments demonstrated that an external focus of attention is indeed characterised by minimal explicit processing as demonstrated by the ability of learners given external focus instructions to perform a secondary task that loads working memory without demonstrating a reduction in primary task performance. Identical results were found for performers given internal focus instructions; however, it was apparent from post experimental questionnaires that these participants had switched to an external focus of attention despite instructions to the contrary. It is argued that an implicit, in this case external focus, mode of learning and performance is the default option, particularly when the ineffectiveness of explicit or internal focusing is salient.-
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherKorea Sport Science Institute. The Journal's web site is located at http://kisseng.kstudy.com/journal/list_name.aspen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Applied Sports Sciencesen_HK
dc.subjectAttention-
dc.subjectFocus-
dc.subjectImplicit-
dc.subjectInstruction and Motor Learning-
dc.titleExternal versus Internal Focus Instructions: Is the learner paying attention?en_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.emailMaxwell, JP: maxwellj@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailMasters, RSW: mastersr@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityMasters, RSW=rp00935en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros83725en_HK
dc.identifier.volume14-
dc.identifier.issue2-
dc.identifier.spage70-
dc.identifier.epage88-
dc.publisher.placeRepublic of Korea-

Export via OAI-PMH Interface in XML Formats


OR


Export to Other Non-XML Formats