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Article: Hokkien Merchants in Maritime Asia prior to 1683: Bridging the East Ocean and the West Ocean

TitleHokkien Merchants in Maritime Asia prior to 1683: Bridging the East Ocean and the West Ocean
Os Mercadores Hokkien na Asia Maritima antes de 1683: Estabelecendo Pontes entre os Oceanos Oriental e Ocidental
Authors
Issue Date2007
PublisherInstituto Cultural do Governo da R.A.E. de Macau. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.icm.gov.mo/deippub/rcMagE.asp
Citation
Review of Culture, 2007, n. 23, p. 89-116 How to Cite?
Revista de Cultura, 2007, n. 23, p. 89-116 How to Cite?
AbstractThe people of coastal south Fujian or “Hokkiens” have a long seafaring tradition and the history of their maritime activities and emigration can be dated back to the early Christian era. This article examines the Hokkien merchant group and their activities in maritime Asia from the perspective of a regional maritime system, the entrepôts of East Asia in particular. The article is structured in the following way. First, a brief account of the early Hokkien maritime activities in Southeast Asia will be given, which will be followed by a survey of a number of major ports within the East Asian maritime system. Three representative entrepôts are chosen for examination, i.e. Korea, Kyushu and Taiwan. In addition, Manila is picked up and added to the picture as a typical Hokkien maritime hub. The author argues that at least six trade hubs with different sizes emerged in the region during different periods, including Korea, Kyushu, Ryukyu, Southeast China coast, Taiwan, Macao and Manila. The centre of maritime trade shifted gradually southward with the coming of the Europeans. When the Silla fell, Chinese merchants came to dominate the regional navigation and trade activities. Of them, the Hokkien merchants from the Quanzhou region were the most active and enterprising. Unlike other segments of the Chinese population, the Hokkiens were mainly active at entrepôts overseas. In order to survive and expand in a foreign environment which was usually dangerous if not hostile, the sojourning Hokkiens who had never been supported and protected by the Chinese government developed a set of unique networks to protect themselves. As the most daring entrepreneurial group in early modern maritime Asia, Hokkien merchants not only performed well in the East Asian waters but also played a bridge role in connecting the Southeast Asian maritime system with the one in East Asia.
As gentes do sul costeiro da provincial de Fujian, ou “Hokkiens”, contam com uma longa tradicao como marinheiros, remontando a sua historia de actividades maritimas e emigratorias aos primordios da era crista. Neste artigo analisa-se o grupo mercante Hokkien e as respectivas actividades na Asia Maritima na perspective de um sistema maritimo regional, em particular dos entrepostos da Asia Oriental. Primeiramente apresenta-se um breve apontamento sobre as actividades maritimas iniciais dos Hokkien no Sudeste Asiatico, a que se segue uma descricao geral de alguns dos principais portos do sistema maritimo da Asia Oriental: Coreia, Kyushu e Taiwan. Analisa-se tambem Manila enquanto centro caracteristico da actividade maritime dos Hokkien. O autor argumenta terem emergido na regiao no minimo seis pontos fulcrais de comercio, de diversas dimensoes, durante diferentes periodos, incluindo a Coreia, a ilha Kyushu, as ilhas Ryukyu, a costa do Sudeste da China, Taiwan, Macau e Manila. Com a chegada dos europeus, o centro do comercio maritime transferiu-se gradualmente para Sul. Com a queda da dinastia Silla, os mercadores chineses comecaram a dominar a navegacao e as actividades mercantis naquela regiao. De entre eles, os mercadores Hokkien da regiao de Quanzhou foram os mais activos e empreendedores. Ao contrario de outros segmentos da populacao chinesa, os Hokkien eram particularmente activos nos entrepostos ultramarinos. Para conseguirem sobreviver e expandir-se num ambiente estranho, habitualmente perigoso e até hostil, os Hokkien, que nunca foram apoiados nem protegidos pelo governo chinês, desenvolveram um conjunto de redes exclusivas para se protegerem. Enquanto o grupo empreendedor mais audacioso nos primórdios da Ásia Marítima moderna, os mercadores Hokkien não só prosperaram nas águas da Ásia Oriental, como estabeleceram uma ponte entre o sistema marítimo do Sudeste Asiático e o da Ásia Oriental.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/87525
ISSN

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorChin, JKen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T09:30:55Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-06T09:30:55Z-
dc.date.issued2007en_HK
dc.identifier.citationReview of Culture, 2007, n. 23, p. 89-116en_HK
dc.identifier.citationRevista de Cultura, 2007, n. 23, p. 89-116-
dc.identifier.issn1682-1106-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/87525-
dc.description.abstractThe people of coastal south Fujian or “Hokkiens” have a long seafaring tradition and the history of their maritime activities and emigration can be dated back to the early Christian era. This article examines the Hokkien merchant group and their activities in maritime Asia from the perspective of a regional maritime system, the entrepôts of East Asia in particular. The article is structured in the following way. First, a brief account of the early Hokkien maritime activities in Southeast Asia will be given, which will be followed by a survey of a number of major ports within the East Asian maritime system. Three representative entrepôts are chosen for examination, i.e. Korea, Kyushu and Taiwan. In addition, Manila is picked up and added to the picture as a typical Hokkien maritime hub. The author argues that at least six trade hubs with different sizes emerged in the region during different periods, including Korea, Kyushu, Ryukyu, Southeast China coast, Taiwan, Macao and Manila. The centre of maritime trade shifted gradually southward with the coming of the Europeans. When the Silla fell, Chinese merchants came to dominate the regional navigation and trade activities. Of them, the Hokkien merchants from the Quanzhou region were the most active and enterprising. Unlike other segments of the Chinese population, the Hokkiens were mainly active at entrepôts overseas. In order to survive and expand in a foreign environment which was usually dangerous if not hostile, the sojourning Hokkiens who had never been supported and protected by the Chinese government developed a set of unique networks to protect themselves. As the most daring entrepreneurial group in early modern maritime Asia, Hokkien merchants not only performed well in the East Asian waters but also played a bridge role in connecting the Southeast Asian maritime system with the one in East Asia.-
dc.description.abstractAs gentes do sul costeiro da provincial de Fujian, ou “Hokkiens”, contam com uma longa tradicao como marinheiros, remontando a sua historia de actividades maritimas e emigratorias aos primordios da era crista. Neste artigo analisa-se o grupo mercante Hokkien e as respectivas actividades na Asia Maritima na perspective de um sistema maritimo regional, em particular dos entrepostos da Asia Oriental. Primeiramente apresenta-se um breve apontamento sobre as actividades maritimas iniciais dos Hokkien no Sudeste Asiatico, a que se segue uma descricao geral de alguns dos principais portos do sistema maritimo da Asia Oriental: Coreia, Kyushu e Taiwan. Analisa-se tambem Manila enquanto centro caracteristico da actividade maritime dos Hokkien. O autor argumenta terem emergido na regiao no minimo seis pontos fulcrais de comercio, de diversas dimensoes, durante diferentes periodos, incluindo a Coreia, a ilha Kyushu, as ilhas Ryukyu, a costa do Sudeste da China, Taiwan, Macau e Manila. Com a chegada dos europeus, o centro do comercio maritime transferiu-se gradualmente para Sul. Com a queda da dinastia Silla, os mercadores chineses comecaram a dominar a navegacao e as actividades mercantis naquela regiao. De entre eles, os mercadores Hokkien da regiao de Quanzhou foram os mais activos e empreendedores. Ao contrario de outros segmentos da populacao chinesa, os Hokkien eram particularmente activos nos entrepostos ultramarinos. Para conseguirem sobreviver e expandir-se num ambiente estranho, habitualmente perigoso e até hostil, os Hokkien, que nunca foram apoiados nem protegidos pelo governo chinês, desenvolveram um conjunto de redes exclusivas para se protegerem. Enquanto o grupo empreendedor mais audacioso nos primórdios da Ásia Marítima moderna, os mercadores Hokkien não só prosperaram nas águas da Ásia Oriental, como estabeleceram uma ponte entre o sistema marítimo do Sudeste Asiático e o da Ásia Oriental.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.languagepor-
dc.publisherInstituto Cultural do Governo da R.A.E. de Macau. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.icm.gov.mo/deippub/rcMagE.asp-
dc.relation.ispartofReview of Cultureen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofRevista de Cultura-
dc.titleHokkien Merchants in Maritime Asia prior to 1683: Bridging the East Ocean and the West Oceanen_HK
dc.titleOs Mercadores Hokkien na Asia Maritima antes de 1683: Estabelecendo Pontes entre os Oceanos Oriental e Ocidental-
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.emailChin, JK: qianj@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityChin, JK=rp00853en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros142543en_HK
dc.identifier.issue23-
dc.identifier.spage89-
dc.identifier.epage116-
dc.publisher.placeMacau (China : Special Administrative Region)-

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