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Article: Smoking, quitting, and the risk of cardiovascular disease among women and men in the Asia-Pacific region
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TitleSmoking, quitting, and the risk of cardiovascular disease among women and men in the Asia-Pacific region
 
AuthorsWoodward, M3
Lam, TH5
Barzi, F
Patel, A
Gu, DF
Rodgers, A
Suh, I
Lawes, CMM
MacMahon, SW
Pan, WH
Eushima, H
Woodward, M
Parag, V
Okayama, A
Maegawa, H
Aoki, N
Nakamura, M
Kubo, N
Yamada, T
Wu, ZS
Yao, CH
Andrews, G
Welborn, TA7
Tang, Z4
Liu, LS8
Xie, JX8
Norton, R
Ameratunga, S
Whitlock, G
Knuiman, MW
Cristensen, S
Wu, XG6
Zhou, J
Yu, XH2
Tamakoshi, A2
Pan, WH
Wu, ZL
Chen, LQ
Shan, GL
Sritara, P
Gu, DF
Duan, XF
Jackson, R
Li, YH
Jiang, CQ5
Fujishima, M
Kiyohara, Y
Iwamoto, H
Woo, J
Ho, SC
Hong, Z
Huang, MS
Zhou, BF
Fub, JL
Kita, Y
Choudhury, SR
Jee, SH
Kim, IS
Giles, G
Hashimoto, T
Sakata, K
Dobson, A
Imai, Y
Ohkubo, T
Hozawa, A
Jamrozik, K
Hobbs, M
Broadhurst, R
Nakachi, K
Fang, XH
Li, SC
Yang, QD
Chen, ZM1
Tanaka, H
Kita, Y
Nozaki, A
Horibe, H
Matsutani, Y
Kagaya, M
Hughes, K
Lee, J
Heng, D
Chew, SK
Zhang, HY
Shimamoto, K
Saitoh, S
Li, ZZ
Norman, P
Jamrozik, K
He, Y
Yao, SX
 
Issue Date2005
 
PublisherOxford University Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/
 
CitationInternational Journal Of Epidemiology, 2005, v. 34 n. 5, p. 1036-1045 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi104
 
AbstractBackground: Although smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, it has been suggested that Asians may be less susceptible to the adverse effects of smoking than Caucasians. This may have contributed to the high prevalence of smoking, and the low quitting rates, in Asian men. Worldwide, smoking rates are increasing for women, amongst whom cardiovascular awareness is relatively poor. Methods: An individual participant data analysis of 40 cohort studies was carried out, involving 463 674 Asians (33% female) and 98 664 Australasians (45% female). Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by study and sex where appropriate, were employed. Results: The HR [95% confidence interval (CI)], comparing current smokers with non-smokers, for coronary heart disease (CHD) was 1.60 (1.49-1.72); haemorrhagic stroke 1.19 (1.06-1.33); ischaemic stroke 1.38 (1.24-1.54). There was a clear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and both CHD and stroke, with no significant difference (P≥ 0.20) between populations from Asia and Australia/New Zealand. Although there was no sex difference for stroke in the effect of amount smoked (P = 0.16), for CHD, women tended to have higher hazard ratios than men (P = 0.011). Quitting gave a clear benefit, which was not significantly different between the sexes or regions (P> 0.63). The HR (CI) for ex-smokers compared with current smokers was 0.71 (0.64-0.78) for CHD and 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for stroke. Conclusions: Unless urgent public health measures are put into place, the impact of the smoking epidemic in Asia, and among women, will be enormous. Tobacco control policies that specifically target these populations are essential. © The Author 2005; all rights reserved.
 
ISSN0300-5771
2013 Impact Factor: 9.197
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 4.074
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi104
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000232594600018
 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorWoodward, M
 
dc.contributor.authorLam, TH
 
dc.contributor.authorBarzi, F
 
dc.contributor.authorPatel, A
 
dc.contributor.authorGu, DF
 
dc.contributor.authorRodgers, A
 
dc.contributor.authorSuh, I
 
dc.contributor.authorLawes, CMM
 
dc.contributor.authorMacMahon, SW
 
dc.contributor.authorPan, WH
 
dc.contributor.authorEushima, H
 
dc.contributor.authorWoodward, M
 
dc.contributor.authorParag, V
 
dc.contributor.authorOkayama, A
 
dc.contributor.authorMaegawa, H
 
dc.contributor.authorAoki, N
 
dc.contributor.authorNakamura, M
 
dc.contributor.authorKubo, N
 
dc.contributor.authorYamada, T
 
dc.contributor.authorWu, ZS
 
dc.contributor.authorYao, CH
 
dc.contributor.authorAndrews, G
 
dc.contributor.authorWelborn, TA
 
dc.contributor.authorTang, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorLiu, LS
 
dc.contributor.authorXie, JX
 
dc.contributor.authorNorton, R
 
dc.contributor.authorAmeratunga, S
 
dc.contributor.authorWhitlock, G
 
dc.contributor.authorKnuiman, MW
 
dc.contributor.authorCristensen, S
 
dc.contributor.authorWu, XG
 
dc.contributor.authorZhou, J
 
dc.contributor.authorYu, XH
 
dc.contributor.authorTamakoshi, A
 
dc.contributor.authorPan, WH
 
dc.contributor.authorWu, ZL
 
dc.contributor.authorChen, LQ
 
dc.contributor.authorShan, GL
 
dc.contributor.authorSritara, P
 
dc.contributor.authorGu, DF
 
dc.contributor.authorDuan, XF
 
dc.contributor.authorJackson, R
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, YH
 
dc.contributor.authorJiang, CQ
 
dc.contributor.authorFujishima, M
 
dc.contributor.authorKiyohara, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorIwamoto, H
 
dc.contributor.authorWoo, J
 
dc.contributor.authorHo, SC
 
dc.contributor.authorHong, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorHuang, MS
 
dc.contributor.authorZhou, BF
 
dc.contributor.authorFub, JL
 
dc.contributor.authorKita, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorChoudhury, SR
 
dc.contributor.authorJee, SH
 
dc.contributor.authorKim, IS
 
dc.contributor.authorGiles, G
 
dc.contributor.authorHashimoto, T
 
dc.contributor.authorSakata, K
 
dc.contributor.authorDobson, A
 
dc.contributor.authorImai, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorOhkubo, T
 
dc.contributor.authorHozawa, A
 
dc.contributor.authorJamrozik, K
 
dc.contributor.authorHobbs, M
 
dc.contributor.authorBroadhurst, R
 
dc.contributor.authorNakachi, K
 
dc.contributor.authorFang, XH
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, SC
 
dc.contributor.authorYang, QD
 
dc.contributor.authorChen, ZM
 
dc.contributor.authorTanaka, H
 
dc.contributor.authorKita, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorNozaki, A
 
dc.contributor.authorHoribe, H
 
dc.contributor.authorMatsutani, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorKagaya, M
 
dc.contributor.authorHughes, K
 
dc.contributor.authorLee, J
 
dc.contributor.authorHeng, D
 
dc.contributor.authorChew, SK
 
dc.contributor.authorZhang, HY
 
dc.contributor.authorShimamoto, K
 
dc.contributor.authorSaitoh, S
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, ZZ
 
dc.contributor.authorNorman, P
 
dc.contributor.authorJamrozik, K
 
dc.contributor.authorHe, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorYao, SX
 
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T09:22:32Z
 
dc.date.available2010-09-06T09:22:32Z
 
dc.date.issued2005
 
dc.description.abstractBackground: Although smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, it has been suggested that Asians may be less susceptible to the adverse effects of smoking than Caucasians. This may have contributed to the high prevalence of smoking, and the low quitting rates, in Asian men. Worldwide, smoking rates are increasing for women, amongst whom cardiovascular awareness is relatively poor. Methods: An individual participant data analysis of 40 cohort studies was carried out, involving 463 674 Asians (33% female) and 98 664 Australasians (45% female). Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by study and sex where appropriate, were employed. Results: The HR [95% confidence interval (CI)], comparing current smokers with non-smokers, for coronary heart disease (CHD) was 1.60 (1.49-1.72); haemorrhagic stroke 1.19 (1.06-1.33); ischaemic stroke 1.38 (1.24-1.54). There was a clear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and both CHD and stroke, with no significant difference (P≥ 0.20) between populations from Asia and Australia/New Zealand. Although there was no sex difference for stroke in the effect of amount smoked (P = 0.16), for CHD, women tended to have higher hazard ratios than men (P = 0.011). Quitting gave a clear benefit, which was not significantly different between the sexes or regions (P> 0.63). The HR (CI) for ex-smokers compared with current smokers was 0.71 (0.64-0.78) for CHD and 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for stroke. Conclusions: Unless urgent public health measures are put into place, the impact of the smoking epidemic in Asia, and among women, will be enormous. Tobacco control policies that specifically target these populations are essential. © The Author 2005; all rights reserved.
 
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal Of Epidemiology, 2005, v. 34 n. 5, p. 1036-1045 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi104
 
dc.identifier.citeulike349298
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyi104
 
dc.identifier.epage1045
 
dc.identifier.hkuros111151
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000232594600018
 
dc.identifier.issn0300-5771
2013 Impact Factor: 9.197
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 4.074
 
dc.identifier.issue5
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.pmid15914503
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-27544499414
 
dc.identifier.spage1036
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/86886
 
dc.identifier.volume34
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherOxford University Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom
 
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Epidemiology
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.rightsInternational Journal of Epidemiology. Copyright © Oxford University Press.
 
dc.subject.meshAdult
 
dc.subject.meshAged
 
dc.subject.meshAsia - epidemiology
 
dc.subject.meshAustralasia
 
dc.subject.meshBlood Pressure - physiology
 
dc.subject.meshCardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
 
dc.subject.meshCohort Studies
 
dc.subject.meshCoronary Disease - epidemiology
 
dc.subject.meshFemale
 
dc.subject.meshHumans
 
dc.subject.meshMale
 
dc.subject.meshMiddle Aged
 
dc.subject.meshRisk Factors
 
dc.subject.meshSex Distribution
 
dc.subject.meshSex Factors
 
dc.subject.meshSmoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
 
dc.subject.meshSmoking Cessation
 
dc.subject.meshStroke - epidemiology
 
dc.titleSmoking, quitting, and the risk of cardiovascular disease among women and men in the Asia-Pacific region
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<contributor.author>Lam, TH</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Barzi, F</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Patel, A</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Gu, DF</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Rodgers, A</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Suh, I</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Lawes, CMM</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Eushima, H</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Parag, V</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Okayama, A</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Andrews, G</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Welborn, TA</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Liu, LS</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Xie, JX</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Ameratunga, S</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Zhou, J</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Tamakoshi, A</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Jackson, R</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Fujishima, M</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Kiyohara, Y</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Iwamoto, H</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Woo, J</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Ho, SC</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Hong, Z</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Huang, MS</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Zhou, BF</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Fub, JL</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Kita, Y</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Choudhury, SR</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Jee, SH</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Giles, G</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Hashimoto, T</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Sakata, K</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Dobson, A</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Tanaka, H</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Kita, Y</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Horibe, H</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>Kagaya, M</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Hughes, K</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Lee, J</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Heng, D</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Chew, SK</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Zhang, HY</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Shimamoto, K</contributor.author>
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<contributor.author>He, Y</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>Yao, SX</contributor.author>
<date.accessioned>2010-09-06T09:22:32Z</date.accessioned>
<date.available>2010-09-06T09:22:32Z</date.available>
<date.issued>2005</date.issued>
<identifier.citation>International Journal Of Epidemiology, 2005, v. 34 n. 5, p. 1036-1045</identifier.citation>
<identifier.issn>0300-5771</identifier.issn>
<identifier.uri>http://hdl.handle.net/10722/86886</identifier.uri>
<description.abstract>Background: Although smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, it has been suggested that Asians may be less susceptible to the adverse effects of smoking than Caucasians. This may have contributed to the high prevalence of smoking, and the low quitting rates, in Asian men. Worldwide, smoking rates are increasing for women, amongst whom cardiovascular awareness is relatively poor. Methods: An individual participant data analysis of 40 cohort studies was carried out, involving 463 674 Asians (33% female) and 98 664 Australasians (45% female). Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by study and sex where appropriate, were employed. Results: The HR [95% confidence interval (CI)], comparing current smokers with non-smokers, for coronary heart disease (CHD) was 1.60 (1.49-1.72); haemorrhagic stroke 1.19 (1.06-1.33); ischaemic stroke 1.38 (1.24-1.54). There was a clear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and both CHD and stroke, with no significant difference (P&#8805; 0.20) between populations from Asia and Australia/New Zealand. Although there was no sex difference for stroke in the effect of amount smoked (P = 0.16), for CHD, women tended to have higher hazard ratios than men (P = 0.011). Quitting gave a clear benefit, which was not significantly different between the sexes or regions (P&gt; 0.63). The HR (CI) for ex-smokers compared with current smokers was 0.71 (0.64-0.78) for CHD and 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for stroke. Conclusions: Unless urgent public health measures are put into place, the impact of the smoking epidemic in Asia, and among women, will be enormous. Tobacco control policies that specifically target these populations are essential. &#169; The Author 2005; all rights reserved.</description.abstract>
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<subject.mesh>Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology</subject.mesh>
<subject.mesh>Smoking Cessation</subject.mesh>
<subject.mesh>Stroke - epidemiology</subject.mesh>
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Author Affiliations
  1. Shanghai Factory Workers
  2. Civil Service Workers
  3. University of Sydney
  4. Beijing Aging
  5. Guangzhou Occupational
  6. Capital Iron and Steel Company
  7. National Heart Foundation of Australia
  8. Beijing Steelworkers