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Article: Smoking, quitting, and the risk of cardiovascular disease among women and men in the Asia-Pacific region

TitleSmoking, quitting, and the risk of cardiovascular disease among women and men in the Asia-Pacific region
Authors
Issue Date2005
PublisherOxford University Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/
Citation
International Journal Of Epidemiology, 2005, v. 34 n. 5, p. 1036-1045 How to Cite?
AbstractBackground: Although smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, it has been suggested that Asians may be less susceptible to the adverse effects of smoking than Caucasians. This may have contributed to the high prevalence of smoking, and the low quitting rates, in Asian men. Worldwide, smoking rates are increasing for women, amongst whom cardiovascular awareness is relatively poor. Methods: An individual participant data analysis of 40 cohort studies was carried out, involving 463 674 Asians (33% female) and 98 664 Australasians (45% female). Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by study and sex where appropriate, were employed. Results: The HR [95% confidence interval (CI)], comparing current smokers with non-smokers, for coronary heart disease (CHD) was 1.60 (1.49-1.72); haemorrhagic stroke 1.19 (1.06-1.33); ischaemic stroke 1.38 (1.24-1.54). There was a clear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and both CHD and stroke, with no significant difference (P≥ 0.20) between populations from Asia and Australia/New Zealand. Although there was no sex difference for stroke in the effect of amount smoked (P = 0.16), for CHD, women tended to have higher hazard ratios than men (P = 0.011). Quitting gave a clear benefit, which was not significantly different between the sexes or regions (P> 0.63). The HR (CI) for ex-smokers compared with current smokers was 0.71 (0.64-0.78) for CHD and 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for stroke. Conclusions: Unless urgent public health measures are put into place, the impact of the smoking epidemic in Asia, and among women, will be enormous. Tobacco control policies that specifically target these populations are essential. © The Author 2005; all rights reserved.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/86886
ISSN
2014 Impact Factor: 9.176
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 4.074
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorWoodward, Men_HK
dc.contributor.authorLam, THen_HK
dc.contributor.authorBarzi, Fen_HK
dc.contributor.authorPatel, Aen_HK
dc.contributor.authorGu, DFen_HK
dc.contributor.authorRodgers, Aen_HK
dc.contributor.authorSuh, Ien_HK
dc.contributor.authorLawes, CMMen_HK
dc.contributor.authorMacMahon, SWen_HK
dc.contributor.authorPan, WHen_HK
dc.contributor.authorEushima, Hen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWoodward, Men_HK
dc.contributor.authorParag, Ven_HK
dc.contributor.authorOkayama, Aen_HK
dc.contributor.authorMaegawa, Hen_HK
dc.contributor.authorAoki, Nen_HK
dc.contributor.authorNakamura, Men_HK
dc.contributor.authorKubo, Nen_HK
dc.contributor.authorYamada, Ten_HK
dc.contributor.authorWu, ZSen_HK
dc.contributor.authorYao, CHen_HK
dc.contributor.authorAndrews, Gen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWelborn, TAen_HK
dc.contributor.authorTang, Zen_HK
dc.contributor.authorLiu, LSen_HK
dc.contributor.authorXie, JXen_HK
dc.contributor.authorNorton, Ren_HK
dc.contributor.authorAmeratunga, Sen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWhitlock, Gen_HK
dc.contributor.authorKnuiman, MWen_HK
dc.contributor.authorCristensen, Sen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWu, XGen_HK
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Jen_HK
dc.contributor.authorYu, XHen_HK
dc.contributor.authorTamakoshi, Aen_HK
dc.contributor.authorPan, WHen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWu, ZLen_HK
dc.contributor.authorChen, LQen_HK
dc.contributor.authorShan, GLen_HK
dc.contributor.authorSritara, Pen_HK
dc.contributor.authorGu, DFen_HK
dc.contributor.authorDuan, XFen_HK
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Ren_HK
dc.contributor.authorLi, YHen_HK
dc.contributor.authorJiang, CQen_HK
dc.contributor.authorFujishima, Men_HK
dc.contributor.authorKiyohara, Yen_HK
dc.contributor.authorIwamoto, Hen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWoo, Jen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHo, SCen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHong, Zen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHuang, MSen_HK
dc.contributor.authorZhou, BFen_HK
dc.contributor.authorFub, JLen_HK
dc.contributor.authorKita, Yen_HK
dc.contributor.authorChoudhury, SRen_HK
dc.contributor.authorJee, SHen_HK
dc.contributor.authorKim, ISen_HK
dc.contributor.authorGiles, Gen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHashimoto, Ten_HK
dc.contributor.authorSakata, Ken_HK
dc.contributor.authorDobson, Aen_HK
dc.contributor.authorImai, Yen_HK
dc.contributor.authorOhkubo, Ten_HK
dc.contributor.authorHozawa, Aen_HK
dc.contributor.authorJamrozik, Ken_HK
dc.contributor.authorHobbs, Men_HK
dc.contributor.authorBroadhurst, Ren_HK
dc.contributor.authorNakachi, Ken_HK
dc.contributor.authorFang, XHen_HK
dc.contributor.authorLi, SCen_HK
dc.contributor.authorYang, QDen_HK
dc.contributor.authorChen, ZMen_HK
dc.contributor.authorTanaka, Hen_HK
dc.contributor.authorKita, Yen_HK
dc.contributor.authorNozaki, Aen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHoribe, Hen_HK
dc.contributor.authorMatsutani, Yen_HK
dc.contributor.authorKagaya, Men_HK
dc.contributor.authorHughes, Ken_HK
dc.contributor.authorLee, Jen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHeng, Den_HK
dc.contributor.authorChew, SKen_HK
dc.contributor.authorZhang, HYen_HK
dc.contributor.authorShimamoto, Ken_HK
dc.contributor.authorSaitoh, Sen_HK
dc.contributor.authorLi, ZZen_HK
dc.contributor.authorNorman, Pen_HK
dc.contributor.authorJamrozik, Ken_HK
dc.contributor.authorHe, Yen_HK
dc.contributor.authorYao, SXen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T09:22:32Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-06T09:22:32Z-
dc.date.issued2005en_HK
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal Of Epidemiology, 2005, v. 34 n. 5, p. 1036-1045en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0300-5771en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/86886-
dc.description.abstractBackground: Although smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, it has been suggested that Asians may be less susceptible to the adverse effects of smoking than Caucasians. This may have contributed to the high prevalence of smoking, and the low quitting rates, in Asian men. Worldwide, smoking rates are increasing for women, amongst whom cardiovascular awareness is relatively poor. Methods: An individual participant data analysis of 40 cohort studies was carried out, involving 463 674 Asians (33% female) and 98 664 Australasians (45% female). Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by study and sex where appropriate, were employed. Results: The HR [95% confidence interval (CI)], comparing current smokers with non-smokers, for coronary heart disease (CHD) was 1.60 (1.49-1.72); haemorrhagic stroke 1.19 (1.06-1.33); ischaemic stroke 1.38 (1.24-1.54). There was a clear dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and both CHD and stroke, with no significant difference (P≥ 0.20) between populations from Asia and Australia/New Zealand. Although there was no sex difference for stroke in the effect of amount smoked (P = 0.16), for CHD, women tended to have higher hazard ratios than men (P = 0.011). Quitting gave a clear benefit, which was not significantly different between the sexes or regions (P> 0.63). The HR (CI) for ex-smokers compared with current smokers was 0.71 (0.64-0.78) for CHD and 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for stroke. Conclusions: Unless urgent public health measures are put into place, the impact of the smoking epidemic in Asia, and among women, will be enormous. Tobacco control policies that specifically target these populations are essential. © The Author 2005; all rights reserved.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherOxford University Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/en_HK
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Epidemiologyen_HK
dc.rightsInternational Journal of Epidemiology. Copyright © Oxford University Press.en_HK
dc.subject.meshAdulten_HK
dc.subject.meshAgeden_HK
dc.subject.meshAsia - epidemiologyen_HK
dc.subject.meshAustralasiaen_HK
dc.subject.meshBlood Pressure - physiologyen_HK
dc.subject.meshCardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiologyen_HK
dc.subject.meshCohort Studiesen_HK
dc.subject.meshCoronary Disease - epidemiologyen_HK
dc.subject.meshFemaleen_HK
dc.subject.meshHumansen_HK
dc.subject.meshMaleen_HK
dc.subject.meshMiddle Ageden_HK
dc.subject.meshRisk Factorsen_HK
dc.subject.meshSex Distributionen_HK
dc.subject.meshSex Factorsen_HK
dc.subject.meshSmoking - adverse effects - epidemiologyen_HK
dc.subject.meshSmoking Cessationen_HK
dc.subject.meshStroke - epidemiologyen_HK
dc.titleSmoking, quitting, and the risk of cardiovascular disease among women and men in the Asia-Pacific regionen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0300-5771&volume=34&spage=1036&epage=1045&date=2005&atitle=Smoking,+quitting,+and+the+risk+of+cardiovascular+disease+among+women+and+men+in+the+Asia-Pacific+regionen_HK
dc.identifier.emailLam, TH:hrmrlth@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityLam, TH=rp00326en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/ije/dyi104en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid15914503en_HK
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-27544499414en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros111151en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-27544499414&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume34en_HK
dc.identifier.issue5en_HK
dc.identifier.spage1036en_HK
dc.identifier.epage1045en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000232594600018-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWoodward, M=7102510958en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLam, TH=7202522876en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridBarzi, F=7003545543en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridPatel, A=7403524332en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridGu, DF=7202151958en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridRodgers, A=34971787100en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSuh, I=7101988200en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLawes, CMM=6602516713en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMacMahon, SW=24312201200en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridPan, WH=55168249800en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridEushima, H=8933464300en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWoodward, M=35278966400en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridParag, V=8924488300en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridOkayama, A=35300529100en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMaegawa, H=7005198303en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridAoki, N=7401716495en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridNakamura, M=7405345581en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKubo, N=7102513194en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridYamada, T=7405973529en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWu, ZS=7501411359en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridYao, CH=7201495948en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridAndrews, G=7202160860en_HK
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dc.identifier.scopusauthoridXie, JX=7402994954en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridNorton, R=18344863600en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridAmeratunga, S=6701716378en_HK
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dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHe, Y=7404942229en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridYao, SX=35231647800en_HK
dc.identifier.citeulike349298-

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