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Article: Natural water softening processes by waterfall effects in karst areas

TitleNatural water softening processes by waterfall effects in karst areas
Authors
KeywordsCaCO3 hardness
Karst
Water softening
Waterfall effects
Issue Date2000
PublisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/desal
Citation
Desalination, 2000, v. 129 n. 3, p. 247-259 How to Cite?
AbstractThe reduction of water hardness, which occurs at waterfalls on rivers in karst areas, is considered to be a result of the waterfall effects. These consist of aeration, jet-flow and low-pressure effects. Waterfall effects bring about two physical changes in river water: an increase in the air-water interface and turbulence. A series of experiments was designed and implemented in order to investigate whether these effects and associated physical changes may cause a reduction of water hardness. From an experiment involving the enlargement of interface area, the plot of air-water interface areas against conductivity revealed that the higher the air-water interface, the more rapidly conductance declines (and Ca2+ is precipitated). A bubble producer was designed and used to simulate bubbles that are produced by aeration and low-pressure effects and a faster decline of water hardness was observed at the location with bubbles in this experiment. When a supersaturated solution was passed through a jet-stream producer, a rapid reduction of water hardness and an increase of pH appeared. Field measurements were used to support the laboratory experiments. Work on the Ya He River and at the Dishuiyan Waterfalls revealed that places with aeration had the quickest hardness reduction and the highest average rate of calcite deposition. | The reduction of water hardness, which occurs at waterfalls on rivers in karst areas, is considered to be a result of the waterfall effects. These consist of aeration, jet-flow and low-pressure effects. Waterfall effects bring about two physical changes in river water: an increase in the air-water interface and turbulence. A series of experiments was designed and implemented in order to investigate whether these effects and associated physical changes may cause a reduction of water hardness. From an experiment involving the enlargement of interface area, the plot of air-water interface areas against conductivity revealed that the higher the air-water interface, the more rapidly conductance declines (and Ca2+ is precipitated). A bubble producer was designed and used to simulate bubbles that are produced by aeration and low-pressure effects and a faster decline of water hardness was observed at the location with bubbles in this experiment. When a supersaturated solution was passed through a jet-stream producer, a rapid reduction of water hardness and an increase of pH appeared. Field measurements were used to support the laboratory experiments. Work on the Ya He River and at the Dishuiyan Waterfalls revealed that places with aeration had the quickest hardness reduction and the highest average rate of calcite deposition.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/86081
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 4.412
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.549
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorZhang, DDen_HK
dc.contributor.authorPeart, Men_HK
dc.contributor.authorZhang, YJen_HK
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Aen_HK
dc.contributor.authorCheng, Xen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T09:12:39Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-06T09:12:39Z-
dc.date.issued2000en_HK
dc.identifier.citationDesalination, 2000, v. 129 n. 3, p. 247-259en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0011-9164en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/86081-
dc.description.abstractThe reduction of water hardness, which occurs at waterfalls on rivers in karst areas, is considered to be a result of the waterfall effects. These consist of aeration, jet-flow and low-pressure effects. Waterfall effects bring about two physical changes in river water: an increase in the air-water interface and turbulence. A series of experiments was designed and implemented in order to investigate whether these effects and associated physical changes may cause a reduction of water hardness. From an experiment involving the enlargement of interface area, the plot of air-water interface areas against conductivity revealed that the higher the air-water interface, the more rapidly conductance declines (and Ca2+ is precipitated). A bubble producer was designed and used to simulate bubbles that are produced by aeration and low-pressure effects and a faster decline of water hardness was observed at the location with bubbles in this experiment. When a supersaturated solution was passed through a jet-stream producer, a rapid reduction of water hardness and an increase of pH appeared. Field measurements were used to support the laboratory experiments. Work on the Ya He River and at the Dishuiyan Waterfalls revealed that places with aeration had the quickest hardness reduction and the highest average rate of calcite deposition. | The reduction of water hardness, which occurs at waterfalls on rivers in karst areas, is considered to be a result of the waterfall effects. These consist of aeration, jet-flow and low-pressure effects. Waterfall effects bring about two physical changes in river water: an increase in the air-water interface and turbulence. A series of experiments was designed and implemented in order to investigate whether these effects and associated physical changes may cause a reduction of water hardness. From an experiment involving the enlargement of interface area, the plot of air-water interface areas against conductivity revealed that the higher the air-water interface, the more rapidly conductance declines (and Ca2+ is precipitated). A bubble producer was designed and used to simulate bubbles that are produced by aeration and low-pressure effects and a faster decline of water hardness was observed at the location with bubbles in this experiment. When a supersaturated solution was passed through a jet-stream producer, a rapid reduction of water hardness and an increase of pH appeared. Field measurements were used to support the laboratory experiments. Work on the Ya He River and at the Dishuiyan Waterfalls revealed that places with aeration had the quickest hardness reduction and the highest average rate of calcite deposition.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherElsevier BV. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/desalen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofDesalinationen_HK
dc.rightsDesalination. Copyright © Elsevier BV.en_HK
dc.subjectCaCO3 hardnessen_HK
dc.subjectKarsten_HK
dc.subjectWater softeningen_HK
dc.subjectWaterfall effectsen_HK
dc.titleNatural water softening processes by waterfall effects in karst areasen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0011-9164&volume=129&spage=247&epage=259&date=2000&atitle=Natural+water+softening+processes+by+waterfall+effects+in+karst+areasen_HK
dc.identifier.emailZhang, DD:zhangd@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailPeart, M:mrpeart@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityZhang, DD=rp00649en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityPeart, M=rp00612en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/S0011-9164(00)00065-5en_HK
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0034253990en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros57557en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-0034253990&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume129en_HK
dc.identifier.issue3en_HK
dc.identifier.spage247en_HK
dc.identifier.epage259en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000088625900005-
dc.publisher.placeNetherlandsen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZhang, DD=9732911600en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridPeart, M=7003362850en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZhang, YJ=15739106800en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZhu, A=8109432700en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridCheng, X=8109432800en_HK

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