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Article: Heterogeneity in transgender: A cluster analysis of a Thai sample

TitleHeterogeneity in transgender: A cluster analysis of a Thai sample
Authors
KeywordsGender role trait
Self concept
Thai male to female transgender
Transgender
Issue Date2005
PublisherHaworth Press, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at https://www.haworthpress.com/web/IJT/
Citation
International Journal Of Transgenderism, 2005, v. 8 n. 1, p. 31-42 How to Cite?
AbstractAn analysis was performed of data from an Adjective Checklist (ACL) study of identity and gender-trait stereotype in Thai MtF transgenders (Winter and Udomsak, 2002a, 2002b). Contrary to previous analyses, the current analysis employed the participants (rather than the ACL traits) as the unit of analysis. For each participant a calculation was made of the extent to which traits endorsed for actual self were also those endorsed as stereotypically male (masculine) or stereotypically female (feminine) traits. In this way gender-in-self scores (indices of masculinity, femininity, and non-differentiation) in actual self-concept (MASC, FASC, and NASC respectively) were calculated. A similar matching procedure involving ideal self led to the calculation of indices for masculinity, femininity, and non-differentiation in ideal self-concept (MISC, FISC, and NISC respectively). A cluster analysis was then performed, using these six gender-in-self scores in order to identify any groups within our sample. Participants clustered into three substantial groups, together accounting for 98% of the data. The largest (69.9% of the sample) endorsed stereotypically male and female as well as undifferentiated traits. It could therefore be described as an androgynous group. The next, accounting for 21.4% of the sample, endorsed overwhelmingly undifferentiated traits. It was accordingly labelled the undifferentiated group. The last, accounting for 6.6% of the sample, endorsed overwhelmingly female-stereotyped traits and, in view of the fact that they had constructed for themselves such a highly stereotypically female self-concept, was labelled the feminine group. All six gender-in-self scores played a part in distinguishing the groups from each other. For all three groups discrepancies between actual and ideal self were found, suggesting personal growth goals that led away from female stereotype. Traits endorsed for actual self were further examined for any sign of group differences in terms of scores for 14 underlying features, as well as loadings on four higher-order factors, as employed in the Winter and Udomsak (2002b) analysis. Traits endorsed for ideal self and for gender-trait stereotyping were examined in the same way and for the same purpose. For actual self no significant group differences were found. In contrast, several differences were found for ideal self. Traits endorsed by the undifferentiated group stood out from the others by being higher on adult ego state, conscientiousness, and emotional stability, and lower on adapted child ego state. All this was reflected in stronger loadings on resourcefulness/dependability. Numerous group differences were identified for gender-trait stereotyping. The feminine group (compared to the other two groups) considered stereotypically female traits to be (a) higher on strength, favourability, adult and free child ego states, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness, and psychological importance, and (b) lower on adapted child ego state. All this was reflected in a stereotypical view of the female as both more caring/harmonious (a stereotypically "female" factor), as well as more resourceful/ dependable (usually a stereotypically "male" factor) than how she was viewed by the other groups. The undifferentiated group's view of the female was at the other extreme, providing a mirror image effect. In conclusion, three groups of MtF transgenders were identified, differing from each other in terms of the degree of gender stereotypy evident in their actual and ideal self-concepts. The three groups also differed in terms of the underlying elements of the traits that they had endorsed for ideal self, as well as for gender-trait stereotypes. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/85320
ISSN
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorWinter, Sen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T09:03:22Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-06T09:03:22Z-
dc.date.issued2005en_HK
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal Of Transgenderism, 2005, v. 8 n. 1, p. 31-42en_HK
dc.identifier.issn1553-2739en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/85320-
dc.description.abstractAn analysis was performed of data from an Adjective Checklist (ACL) study of identity and gender-trait stereotype in Thai MtF transgenders (Winter and Udomsak, 2002a, 2002b). Contrary to previous analyses, the current analysis employed the participants (rather than the ACL traits) as the unit of analysis. For each participant a calculation was made of the extent to which traits endorsed for actual self were also those endorsed as stereotypically male (masculine) or stereotypically female (feminine) traits. In this way gender-in-self scores (indices of masculinity, femininity, and non-differentiation) in actual self-concept (MASC, FASC, and NASC respectively) were calculated. A similar matching procedure involving ideal self led to the calculation of indices for masculinity, femininity, and non-differentiation in ideal self-concept (MISC, FISC, and NISC respectively). A cluster analysis was then performed, using these six gender-in-self scores in order to identify any groups within our sample. Participants clustered into three substantial groups, together accounting for 98% of the data. The largest (69.9% of the sample) endorsed stereotypically male and female as well as undifferentiated traits. It could therefore be described as an androgynous group. The next, accounting for 21.4% of the sample, endorsed overwhelmingly undifferentiated traits. It was accordingly labelled the undifferentiated group. The last, accounting for 6.6% of the sample, endorsed overwhelmingly female-stereotyped traits and, in view of the fact that they had constructed for themselves such a highly stereotypically female self-concept, was labelled the feminine group. All six gender-in-self scores played a part in distinguishing the groups from each other. For all three groups discrepancies between actual and ideal self were found, suggesting personal growth goals that led away from female stereotype. Traits endorsed for actual self were further examined for any sign of group differences in terms of scores for 14 underlying features, as well as loadings on four higher-order factors, as employed in the Winter and Udomsak (2002b) analysis. Traits endorsed for ideal self and for gender-trait stereotyping were examined in the same way and for the same purpose. For actual self no significant group differences were found. In contrast, several differences were found for ideal self. Traits endorsed by the undifferentiated group stood out from the others by being higher on adult ego state, conscientiousness, and emotional stability, and lower on adapted child ego state. All this was reflected in stronger loadings on resourcefulness/dependability. Numerous group differences were identified for gender-trait stereotyping. The feminine group (compared to the other two groups) considered stereotypically female traits to be (a) higher on strength, favourability, adult and free child ego states, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness, and psychological importance, and (b) lower on adapted child ego state. All this was reflected in a stereotypical view of the female as both more caring/harmonious (a stereotypically "female" factor), as well as more resourceful/ dependable (usually a stereotypically "male" factor) than how she was viewed by the other groups. The undifferentiated group's view of the female was at the other extreme, providing a mirror image effect. In conclusion, three groups of MtF transgenders were identified, differing from each other in terms of the degree of gender stereotypy evident in their actual and ideal self-concepts. The three groups also differed in terms of the underlying elements of the traits that they had endorsed for ideal self, as well as for gender-trait stereotypes. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherHaworth Press, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at https://www.haworthpress.com/web/IJT/-
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Transgenderismen_HK
dc.rightsThe International Journal of Transgenderism. Copyright © Haworth Press, Inc.-
dc.subjectGender role traiten_HK
dc.subjectSelf concepten_HK
dc.subjectThai male to female transgenderen_HK
dc.subjectTransgenderen_HK
dc.titleHeterogeneity in transgender: A cluster analysis of a Thai sampleen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=1434-4599&volume=8&issue=1&spage=31&epage=42&date=2005&atitle=Heterogeneity+in+transgender:+a+cluster+analysis+of+a+Thai+sample-
dc.identifier.emailWinter, S: sjwinter@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityWinter, S=rp00971en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1300/J485v08n01_04en_HK
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-33644615163en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros90256en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-33644615163&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume8en_HK
dc.identifier.issue1en_HK
dc.identifier.spage31en_HK
dc.identifier.epage42en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWinter, S=7202247303en_HK

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