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Article: Implicit motor learning in surgery: Implications for multi-tasking

TitleImplicit motor learning in surgery: Implications for multi-tasking
Authors
Issue Date2008
PublisherMosby, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/surg
Citation
Surgery, 2008, v. 143 n. 1, p. 140-145 How to Cite?
AbstractBackground: Implicitly learned motor skills are characterized by minimal conscious knowledge of the movements involved and stable performance despite stress, fatigue, or multi-tasking. In contrast, explicitly learned motor skills are characterized by conscious knowledge of the movements and performance that tends to be less stable under stress, fatigue, and multi-tasking. We examined the acquisition of a basic surgical skill in three observational learning treatment conditions designed to accomplish implicit or explicit motor learning. We then tested performance in conditions that emulated multi-tasking in the operating theater. Our intention was to elaborate current understanding of implicit and explicit processes that underpin observational learning in the surgical environment. Methods: Thirty-six novice adults were assigned randomly to an observation-only, an instructed-observation, or a guided-observation treatment condition, in which they learned to perform a suturing and knot-tying task in a Learning Phase. Their performance during multi-tasking was then assessed objectively by motion analysis during a Test Phase. Results: In the Learning Phase, performance improved equally in the treatment conditions throughout learning, with participants using fewer hand movements and completing the task more quickly. Participants in the observation-only and the guided-observation treatment condition, however, reported significantly less movement-related knowledge than participants in the instructed-observation condition. In the Test Phase, participants in the instructed-observation condition exhibited slower completion times and more hand movements when they were required to multi-task, whereas in the observation-only and the guided-observation treatment condition, participants showed stable performance. Conclusions: A surgical skill that is learned by observation alone or by observation accompanied by guidance to reduce the number of errors that are committed tends to be learned implicitly and to have stable performance during multi-tasking. The efficacy of observation for acquiring technical skills implies that, at least for some skills, verbal instructions may not be necessary. © 2008 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/84571
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 3.309
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.620
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorMasters, RSWen_HK
dc.contributor.authorLo, CYen_HK
dc.contributor.authorMaxwell, JPen_HK
dc.contributor.authorPatil, NGen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T08:54:31Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-06T08:54:31Z-
dc.date.issued2008en_HK
dc.identifier.citationSurgery, 2008, v. 143 n. 1, p. 140-145en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0039-6060en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/84571-
dc.description.abstractBackground: Implicitly learned motor skills are characterized by minimal conscious knowledge of the movements involved and stable performance despite stress, fatigue, or multi-tasking. In contrast, explicitly learned motor skills are characterized by conscious knowledge of the movements and performance that tends to be less stable under stress, fatigue, and multi-tasking. We examined the acquisition of a basic surgical skill in three observational learning treatment conditions designed to accomplish implicit or explicit motor learning. We then tested performance in conditions that emulated multi-tasking in the operating theater. Our intention was to elaborate current understanding of implicit and explicit processes that underpin observational learning in the surgical environment. Methods: Thirty-six novice adults were assigned randomly to an observation-only, an instructed-observation, or a guided-observation treatment condition, in which they learned to perform a suturing and knot-tying task in a Learning Phase. Their performance during multi-tasking was then assessed objectively by motion analysis during a Test Phase. Results: In the Learning Phase, performance improved equally in the treatment conditions throughout learning, with participants using fewer hand movements and completing the task more quickly. Participants in the observation-only and the guided-observation treatment condition, however, reported significantly less movement-related knowledge than participants in the instructed-observation condition. In the Test Phase, participants in the instructed-observation condition exhibited slower completion times and more hand movements when they were required to multi-task, whereas in the observation-only and the guided-observation treatment condition, participants showed stable performance. Conclusions: A surgical skill that is learned by observation alone or by observation accompanied by guidance to reduce the number of errors that are committed tends to be learned implicitly and to have stable performance during multi-tasking. The efficacy of observation for acquiring technical skills implies that, at least for some skills, verbal instructions may not be necessary. © 2008 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherMosby, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/surgen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofSurgeryen_HK
dc.titleImplicit motor learning in surgery: Implications for multi-taskingen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0263-9319&volume=143&spage=140&epage=145&date=2008&atitle=Implicit+motor+learning+in+surgery:+Implications+for+multi-taskingen_HK
dc.identifier.emailMasters, RSW: mastersr@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailPatil, NG: ngpatil@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityMasters, RSW=rp00935en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityPatil, NG=rp00388en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.surg.2007.06.018en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid18154942-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-37249058806en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros140979en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-37249058806&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume143en_HK
dc.identifier.issue1en_HK
dc.identifier.spage140en_HK
dc.identifier.epage145en_HK
dc.identifier.eissn1532-7361-
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000251973600016-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMasters, RSW=7102880488en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLo, CY=36151700700en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMaxwell, JP=7201610565en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridPatil, NG=7103152514en_HK

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