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Article: Genome-wide detection and characterization of positive selection in human populations
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TitleGenome-wide detection and characterization of positive selection in human populations
 
AuthorsSabeti, PC66
Varilly, P66
Fry, B66
Lohmueller, J66
Hostetter, E66
Cotsapas, C66 6
Xie, X66
Byrne, EH66
McCarroll, SA66 6
Gaudet, R19
Schaffner, SF66
Lander, ES66 1 9 25
Frazer, KA34
Ballinger, DG20
Cox, DR20
Hinds, DA20
Stuve, LL20
Gibbs, RA4
Belmont, JW4
Boudreau, A52
Hardenbol, P7
Leal, SM4
Pasternak, S8
Wheeler, DA4
Willis, TD52
Yu, F66
Yang, H39
Zeng, C39
Gao, Y39
Hu, H39
Hu, W39
Li, C39
Lin, W39
Liu, S39
Pan, H39
Tang, X39
Wang, J39
Wang, W39
Yu, J39
Zhang, B39
Zhang, Q39
Zhao, H39
Zhao, H39
Zhou, J39
Gabriel, SB66
Barry, R66
Blumenstiel, B66
Camargo, A66
Defelice, M66
Faggart, M66
Goyette, M66
Gupta, S66
Moore, J66
Nguyen, H66
Onofrio, RC66
Parkin, M66
Roy, J66
Stahl, E66
Winchester, E66
Ziaugra, L66
Altshuler, D66 6
Shen, Y21
Yao, Z21
Huang, W21
Chu, X21
He, Y21
Jin, L48
Liu, Y21
Shen, Y21
Sun, W21
Wang, H21
Wang, Y21
Wang, Y21
Xiong, X21
Xu, L21
Waye, MMY63
Tsui, SKW63
Xue, H49
Wong, JTF49
Galver, LM62
Fan, JB62
Gunderson, K62
Murray, SS34
Oliphant, AR22
Chee, MS35
Montpetit, A65
Chagnon, F65
Ferretti, V65
Leboeuf, M65
Olivier, JF52
Phillips, MS65
Roumy, S62
Sallée, C67
Verner, A65
Hudson, TJ26
Kwok, PY3
Cai, D3
Koboldt, DC43
Miller, RD43
Pawlikowska, L3
TaillonMiller, P43
Xiao, M3
Tsui, LC23
Mak, W23
You, QS23
Tam, PKH23
Nakamura, Y37 31
Kawaguchi, T31
Kitamoto, T31
Morizono, T31
Nagashima, A31
Ohnishi, Y31
Sekine, A31
Tanaka, T31
Tsunoda, T31
Deloukas, P33
Bird, CP33
Delgado, M33
Dermitzakis, ET33
Gwilliam, R33
Hunt, S33
Morrison, J47
Powell, D33
Stranger, BE33
Whittaker, P33
Bentley, DR54
Daly, MJ66 6
De Bakker, PIW66 6
Barrett, J66 6
Chretien, YR66
Maller, J66 6
McCarroll, S66 6
Patterson, N66
Pe'Er, I17
Price, A66
Purcell, S6
Richter, DJ66
Saxena, R66 6
Sham, PC23
Stein, LD8
Krishnan, L8
Smith, AV8
TelloRuiz, MK8
Thorisson, GA57
Chakravarti, A61
Chen, PE61
Cutler, DJ61
Kashuk, CS61
Lin, S61
Abecasis, GR44
Guan, W44
Li, Y44
Munro, HM36
Qin, ZS44
Thomas, DJ56
McVean, G50
Auton, A50
Bottolo, L50
Cardin, N50
Eyheramendy, S50
Freeman, C50
Marchini, J50
Myers, S50
Spencer, C66
Stephens, M46
Donnelly, P50
Cardon, LR41
Clarke, G32
Evans, DM32
Morris, AP32
Weir, BS59
Johnson, TA31
Mullikin, JC10
Sherry, ST40
Feolo, M40
Skol, A46
Zhang, H2
Matsuda, I42
Fukushima, Y60
MacEr, DR53
Suda, E13
Rotimi, CN27
Adebamowo, CA29
Ajayi, I29
Aniagwu, T29
Marshall, PA28
Nkwodimmah, C29
Royal, CDM27
Leppert, MF51
Dixon, M51
Peiffer, A51
Qiu, R5
Kent, A11
Kato, K45
Niikawa, N18
Adewole, IF29
Knoppers, BM67
Foster, MW15
Clayton, EW58
Watkin, J12
Muzny, D4
Nazareth, L4
Sodergren, E4
Weinstock, GM4
Yakub, I4
Birren, BW66
Wilson, RK43
Fulton, LL43
Rogers, J33
Burton, J33
Carter, NP33
Clee, CM33
Griffiths, M33
Jones, MC33
McLay, K33
Plumb, RW33
Ross, MT33
Sims, SK33
Willey, DL33
Chen, Z39
Han, H39
Kang, L39
Godbout, M55
Wallenburg, JC65
L'Archevêque, P
Bellemare, G
Saeki, K14
Wang, H30
An, D30
Fu, H30
Li, Q30
Wang, Z30
Wang, R24
Holden, AL62
Brooks, LD10
McEwen, JE10
Guyer, MS10
Wang, VO64 10
Peterson, JL10
Shi, M38
Spiegel, J64
Sung, LM16
Zacharia, LF10
Collins, FS10
Kennedy, K55
Jamieson, R12
Stewart, J12
 
KeywordsRegional Index: Eurasia
Europe
 
Issue Date2007
 
PublisherNature Publishing Group. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.nature.com/nature
 
CitationNature, 2007, v. 449 n. 7164, p. 913-918 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06250
 
AbstractWith the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a population that have undergone recent selection, and we also developed new methods that are based on cross-population comparisons to discover alleles that have swept to near-fixation within a population. The analysis reveals more than 300 strong candidate regions. Focusing on the strongest 22 regions, we develop a heuristic for scrutinizing these regions to identify candidate targets of selection. In a complementary analysis, we identify 26 non-synonymous, coding, single nucleotide polymorphisms showing regional evidence of positive selection. Examination of these candidates highlights three cases in which two genes in a common biological process have apparently undergone positive selection in the same population:LARGE and DMD, both related to infection by the Lassa virus, in West Africa;SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, both involved in skin pigmentation, in Europe; and EDAR and EDA2R, both involved in development of hair follicles, in Asia. ©2007 Nature Publishing Group.
 
ISSN0028-0836
2013 Impact Factor: 42.351
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06250
 
PubMed Central IDPMC2687721
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000250230600049
 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorSabeti, PC
 
dc.contributor.authorVarilly, P
 
dc.contributor.authorFry, B
 
dc.contributor.authorLohmueller, J
 
dc.contributor.authorHostetter, E
 
dc.contributor.authorCotsapas, C
 
dc.contributor.authorXie, X
 
dc.contributor.authorByrne, EH
 
dc.contributor.authorMcCarroll, SA
 
dc.contributor.authorGaudet, R
 
dc.contributor.authorSchaffner, SF
 
dc.contributor.authorLander, ES
 
dc.contributor.authorFrazer, KA
 
dc.contributor.authorBallinger, DG
 
dc.contributor.authorCox, DR
 
dc.contributor.authorHinds, DA
 
dc.contributor.authorStuve, LL
 
dc.contributor.authorGibbs, RA
 
dc.contributor.authorBelmont, JW
 
dc.contributor.authorBoudreau, A
 
dc.contributor.authorHardenbol, P
 
dc.contributor.authorLeal, SM
 
dc.contributor.authorPasternak, S
 
dc.contributor.authorWheeler, DA
 
dc.contributor.authorWillis, TD
 
dc.contributor.authorYu, F
 
dc.contributor.authorYang, H
 
dc.contributor.authorZeng, C
 
dc.contributor.authorGao, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorHu, H
 
dc.contributor.authorHu, W
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, C
 
dc.contributor.authorLin, W
 
dc.contributor.authorLiu, S
 
dc.contributor.authorPan, H
 
dc.contributor.authorTang, X
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, J
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, W
 
dc.contributor.authorYu, J
 
dc.contributor.authorZhang, B
 
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Q
 
dc.contributor.authorZhao, H
 
dc.contributor.authorZhao, H
 
dc.contributor.authorZhou, J
 
dc.contributor.authorGabriel, SB
 
dc.contributor.authorBarry, R
 
dc.contributor.authorBlumenstiel, B
 
dc.contributor.authorCamargo, A
 
dc.contributor.authorDefelice, M
 
dc.contributor.authorFaggart, M
 
dc.contributor.authorGoyette, M
 
dc.contributor.authorGupta, S
 
dc.contributor.authorMoore, J
 
dc.contributor.authorNguyen, H
 
dc.contributor.authorOnofrio, RC
 
dc.contributor.authorParkin, M
 
dc.contributor.authorRoy, J
 
dc.contributor.authorStahl, E
 
dc.contributor.authorWinchester, E
 
dc.contributor.authorZiaugra, L
 
dc.contributor.authorAltshuler, D
 
dc.contributor.authorShen, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorYao, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorHuang, W
 
dc.contributor.authorChu, X
 
dc.contributor.authorHe, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorJin, L
 
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorShen, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorSun, W
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, H
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorXiong, X
 
dc.contributor.authorXu, L
 
dc.contributor.authorWaye, MMY
 
dc.contributor.authorTsui, SKW
 
dc.contributor.authorXue, H
 
dc.contributor.authorWong, JTF
 
dc.contributor.authorGalver, LM
 
dc.contributor.authorFan, JB
 
dc.contributor.authorGunderson, K
 
dc.contributor.authorMurray, SS
 
dc.contributor.authorOliphant, AR
 
dc.contributor.authorChee, MS
 
dc.contributor.authorMontpetit, A
 
dc.contributor.authorChagnon, F
 
dc.contributor.authorFerretti, V
 
dc.contributor.authorLeboeuf, M
 
dc.contributor.authorOlivier, JF
 
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, MS
 
dc.contributor.authorRoumy, S
 
dc.contributor.authorSallée, C
 
dc.contributor.authorVerner, A
 
dc.contributor.authorHudson, TJ
 
dc.contributor.authorKwok, PY
 
dc.contributor.authorCai, D
 
dc.contributor.authorKoboldt, DC
 
dc.contributor.authorMiller, RD
 
dc.contributor.authorPawlikowska, L
 
dc.contributor.authorTaillonMiller, P
 
dc.contributor.authorXiao, M
 
dc.contributor.authorTsui, LC
 
dc.contributor.authorMak, W
 
dc.contributor.authorYou, QS
 
dc.contributor.authorTam, PKH
 
dc.contributor.authorNakamura, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorKawaguchi, T
 
dc.contributor.authorKitamoto, T
 
dc.contributor.authorMorizono, T
 
dc.contributor.authorNagashima, A
 
dc.contributor.authorOhnishi, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorSekine, A
 
dc.contributor.authorTanaka, T
 
dc.contributor.authorTsunoda, T
 
dc.contributor.authorDeloukas, P
 
dc.contributor.authorBird, CP
 
dc.contributor.authorDelgado, M
 
dc.contributor.authorDermitzakis, ET
 
dc.contributor.authorGwilliam, R
 
dc.contributor.authorHunt, S
 
dc.contributor.authorMorrison, J
 
dc.contributor.authorPowell, D
 
dc.contributor.authorStranger, BE
 
dc.contributor.authorWhittaker, P
 
dc.contributor.authorBentley, DR
 
dc.contributor.authorDaly, MJ
 
dc.contributor.authorDe Bakker, PIW
 
dc.contributor.authorBarrett, J
 
dc.contributor.authorChretien, YR
 
dc.contributor.authorMaller, J
 
dc.contributor.authorMcCarroll, S
 
dc.contributor.authorPatterson, N
 
dc.contributor.authorPe'Er, I
 
dc.contributor.authorPrice, A
 
dc.contributor.authorPurcell, S
 
dc.contributor.authorRichter, DJ
 
dc.contributor.authorSaxena, R
 
dc.contributor.authorSham, PC
 
dc.contributor.authorStein, LD
 
dc.contributor.authorKrishnan, L
 
dc.contributor.authorSmith, AV
 
dc.contributor.authorTelloRuiz, MK
 
dc.contributor.authorThorisson, GA
 
dc.contributor.authorChakravarti, A
 
dc.contributor.authorChen, PE
 
dc.contributor.authorCutler, DJ
 
dc.contributor.authorKashuk, CS
 
dc.contributor.authorLin, S
 
dc.contributor.authorAbecasis, GR
 
dc.contributor.authorGuan, W
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorMunro, HM
 
dc.contributor.authorQin, ZS
 
dc.contributor.authorThomas, DJ
 
dc.contributor.authorMcVean, G
 
dc.contributor.authorAuton, A
 
dc.contributor.authorBottolo, L
 
dc.contributor.authorCardin, N
 
dc.contributor.authorEyheramendy, S
 
dc.contributor.authorFreeman, C
 
dc.contributor.authorMarchini, J
 
dc.contributor.authorMyers, S
 
dc.contributor.authorSpencer, C
 
dc.contributor.authorStephens, M
 
dc.contributor.authorDonnelly, P
 
dc.contributor.authorCardon, LR
 
dc.contributor.authorClarke, G
 
dc.contributor.authorEvans, DM
 
dc.contributor.authorMorris, AP
 
dc.contributor.authorWeir, BS
 
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, TA
 
dc.contributor.authorMullikin, JC
 
dc.contributor.authorSherry, ST
 
dc.contributor.authorFeolo, M
 
dc.contributor.authorSkol, A
 
dc.contributor.authorZhang, H
 
dc.contributor.authorMatsuda, I
 
dc.contributor.authorFukushima, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorMacEr, DR
 
dc.contributor.authorSuda, E
 
dc.contributor.authorRotimi, CN
 
dc.contributor.authorAdebamowo, CA
 
dc.contributor.authorAjayi, I
 
dc.contributor.authorAniagwu, T
 
dc.contributor.authorMarshall, PA
 
dc.contributor.authorNkwodimmah, C
 
dc.contributor.authorRoyal, CDM
 
dc.contributor.authorLeppert, MF
 
dc.contributor.authorDixon, M
 
dc.contributor.authorPeiffer, A
 
dc.contributor.authorQiu, R
 
dc.contributor.authorKent, A
 
dc.contributor.authorKato, K
 
dc.contributor.authorNiikawa, N
 
dc.contributor.authorAdewole, IF
 
dc.contributor.authorKnoppers, BM
 
dc.contributor.authorFoster, MW
 
dc.contributor.authorClayton, EW
 
dc.contributor.authorWatkin, J
 
dc.contributor.authorMuzny, D
 
dc.contributor.authorNazareth, L
 
dc.contributor.authorSodergren, E
 
dc.contributor.authorWeinstock, GM
 
dc.contributor.authorYakub, I
 
dc.contributor.authorBirren, BW
 
dc.contributor.authorWilson, RK
 
dc.contributor.authorFulton, LL
 
dc.contributor.authorRogers, J
 
dc.contributor.authorBurton, J
 
dc.contributor.authorCarter, NP
 
dc.contributor.authorClee, CM
 
dc.contributor.authorGriffiths, M
 
dc.contributor.authorJones, MC
 
dc.contributor.authorMcLay, K
 
dc.contributor.authorPlumb, RW
 
dc.contributor.authorRoss, MT
 
dc.contributor.authorSims, SK
 
dc.contributor.authorWilley, DL
 
dc.contributor.authorChen, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorHan, H
 
dc.contributor.authorKang, L
 
dc.contributor.authorGodbout, M
 
dc.contributor.authorWallenburg, JC
 
dc.contributor.authorL'Archevêque, P
 
dc.contributor.authorBellemare, G
 
dc.contributor.authorSaeki, K
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, H
 
dc.contributor.authorAn, D
 
dc.contributor.authorFu, H
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, Q
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, R
 
dc.contributor.authorHolden, AL
 
dc.contributor.authorBrooks, LD
 
dc.contributor.authorMcEwen, JE
 
dc.contributor.authorGuyer, MS
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, VO
 
dc.contributor.authorPeterson, JL
 
dc.contributor.authorShi, M
 
dc.contributor.authorSpiegel, J
 
dc.contributor.authorSung, LM
 
dc.contributor.authorZacharia, LF
 
dc.contributor.authorCollins, FS
 
dc.contributor.authorKennedy, K
 
dc.contributor.authorJamieson, R
 
dc.contributor.authorStewart, J
 
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T08:53:56Z
 
dc.date.available2010-09-06T08:53:56Z
 
dc.date.issued2007
 
dc.description.abstractWith the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a population that have undergone recent selection, and we also developed new methods that are based on cross-population comparisons to discover alleles that have swept to near-fixation within a population. The analysis reveals more than 300 strong candidate regions. Focusing on the strongest 22 regions, we develop a heuristic for scrutinizing these regions to identify candidate targets of selection. In a complementary analysis, we identify 26 non-synonymous, coding, single nucleotide polymorphisms showing regional evidence of positive selection. Examination of these candidates highlights three cases in which two genes in a common biological process have apparently undergone positive selection in the same population:LARGE and DMD, both related to infection by the Lassa virus, in West Africa;SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, both involved in skin pigmentation, in Europe; and EDAR and EDA2R, both involved in development of hair follicles, in Asia. ©2007 Nature Publishing Group.
 
dc.description.naturelink_to_OA_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationNature, 2007, v. 449 n. 7164, p. 913-918 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06250
 
dc.identifier.citeulike1780777
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06250
 
dc.identifier.epage918
 
dc.identifier.f10001094912
 
dc.identifier.f10001094912
 
dc.identifier.f10001094912
 
dc.identifier.f10001094912
 
dc.identifier.f10001094912
 
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dc.identifier.f10001094912
 
dc.identifier.f10001094912
 
dc.identifier.f10001094912
 
dc.identifier.hkuros139460
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000250230600049
 
dc.identifier.issn0028-0836
2013 Impact Factor: 42.351
 
dc.identifier.issue7164
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC2687721
 
dc.identifier.pmid17943131
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-35349012592
 
dc.identifier.spage913
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/84522
 
dc.identifier.volume449
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherNature Publishing Group. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.nature.com/nature
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom
 
dc.relation.ispartofNature
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.subjectRegional Index: Eurasia
 
dc.subjectEurope
 
dc.titleGenome-wide detection and characterization of positive selection in human populations
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<date.accessioned>2010-09-06T08:53:56Z</date.accessioned>
<date.available>2010-09-06T08:53:56Z</date.available>
<date.issued>2007</date.issued>
<identifier.citation>Nature, 2007, v. 449 n. 7164, p. 913-918</identifier.citation>
<identifier.issn>0028-0836</identifier.issn>
<identifier.uri>http://hdl.handle.net/10722/84522</identifier.uri>
<description.abstract>With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used &apos;long-range haplotype&apos; methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a population that have undergone recent selection, and we also developed new methods that are based on cross-population comparisons to discover alleles that have swept to near-fixation within a population. The analysis reveals more than 300 strong candidate regions. Focusing on the strongest 22 regions, we develop a heuristic for scrutinizing these regions to identify candidate targets of selection. In a complementary analysis, we identify 26 non-synonymous, coding, single nucleotide polymorphisms showing regional evidence of positive selection. Examination of these candidates highlights three cases in which two genes in a common biological process have apparently undergone positive selection in the same population:LARGE and DMD, both related to infection by the Lassa virus, in West Africa;SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, both involved in skin pigmentation, in Europe; and EDAR and EDA2R, both involved in development of hair follicles, in Asia. &#169;2007 Nature Publishing Group.</description.abstract>
<language>eng</language>
<publisher>Nature Publishing Group. The Journal&apos;s web site is located at http://www.nature.com/nature</publisher>
<relation.ispartof>Nature</relation.ispartof>
<subject>Regional Index: Eurasia</subject>
<subject>Europe</subject>
<title>Genome-wide detection and characterization of positive selection in human populations</title>
<type>Article</type>
<identifier.openurl>http://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&amp;issn=0028-0836&amp;volume=449&amp;issue=7164&amp;spage=913&amp;epage=918&amp;date=2007&amp;atitle=Genome-wide+detection+and+characterization+of+positive+selection+in+human+populations+(Co-PI+of+Hong+Kong+Centre+which+responsible+2.5%+of+genome)</identifier.openurl>
<description.nature>link_to_OA_fulltext</description.nature>
<identifier.doi>10.1038/nature06250</identifier.doi>
<identifier.pmid>17943131</identifier.pmid>
<identifier.pmcid>PMC2687721</identifier.pmcid>
<identifier.scopus>eid_2-s2.0-35349012592</identifier.scopus>
<identifier.hkuros>139460</identifier.hkuros>
<relation.references>http://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-35349012592&amp;selection=ref&amp;src=s&amp;origin=recordpage</relation.references>
<identifier.volume>449</identifier.volume>
<identifier.issue>7164</identifier.issue>
<identifier.spage>913</identifier.spage>
<identifier.epage>918</identifier.epage>
<identifier.isi>WOS:000250230600049</identifier.isi>
<publisher.place>United Kingdom</publisher.place>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.f1000>1094912</identifier.f1000>
<identifier.citeulike>1780777</identifier.citeulike>
<bitstream.url>http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/84522/1/re01.htm</bitstream.url>
</item>
Author Affiliations
  1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  2. Beijing Normal University
  3. University of California, San Francisco
  4. Baylor College of Medicine
  5. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
  6. Massachusetts General Hospital
  7. Pacific Biosciences
  8. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
  9. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
  10. National Human Genome Research Institute
  11. Genetic Interest Group
  12. Wellcome Trust
  13. University of Tsukuba
  14. Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
  15. University of Oklahoma
  16. University of Maryland School of Law
  17. Columbia University in the City of New York
  18. Nagasaki University
  19. Harvard University
  20. Perlegen Sciences, Inc.
  21. Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai
  22. Complete Genomics Inc.
  23. The University of Hong Kong
  24. Human Genetic Resource Administration of China
  25. Harvard Medical School
  26. Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
  27. Howard University
  28. CASE School of Medicine
  29. University of Ibadan
  30. Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China
  31. Riken
  32. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
  33. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
  34. Scripps Research Institute
  35. Prognosys Biosciences Inc.
  36. International Epidemiology Institute
  37. Institute of Medical Science The University of Tokyo
  38. Novartis Pharma
  39. Chinese Academy of Sciences
  40. National Center for Biotechnology Information
  41. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  42. Health Sciences University of Hokkaido
  43. Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine
  44. University of Michigan School of Public Health
  45. Kyoto University
  46. University of Chicago
  47. University of Cambridge
  48. Fudan University
  49. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
  50. University of Oxford
  51. University of Utah Health Sciences Center
  52. Affymetrix
  53. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO Bangkok)
  54. Solexa Ltd.
  55. null
  56. University of California, Santa Cruz
  57. University of Leicester
  58. Vanderbilt University
  59. University of Washington Seattle
  60. Shinshu University Faculty of Medicine
  61. The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
  62. Illumina, Inc.
  63. Chinese University of Hong Kong
  64. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda
  65. McGill University
  66. Broad Institute
  67. Université de Montréal