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Article: A second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs
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TitleA second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs
 
AuthorsFrazer, KA30
Ballinger, DG17
Cox, DR17
Hinds, DA17
Stuve, LL17
Gibbs, RA3
Belmont, JW3
Boudreau, A48
Hardenbol, P6
Leal, SM3
Pasternak, S7
Wheeler, DA3
Willis, TD48
Yu, F62
Yang, H35
Zeng, C35
Gao, Y35
Hu, H35
Hu, W35
Li, C35
Lin, W35
Liu, S35
Pan, H35
Tang, X35
Wang, J35
Wang, W35
Yu, J35
Zhang, B35
Zhang, Q35
Zhao, H35
Zhao, H35
Zhou, J35
Gabriel, SB62
Barry, R62
Blumenstiel, B62
Camargo, A62
Defelice, M62
Faggart, M62
Goyette, M62
Gupta, S62
Moore, J62
Nguyen, H62
Onofrio, RC62
Parkin, M62
Roy, J62
Stahl, E62
Winchester, E62
Ziaugra, L62
Altshuler, D62 5
Shen, Y18
Yao, Z18
Huang, W18
Chu, X18
He, Y18
Jin, L44
Liu, Y18
Shen, Y18
Sun, W18
Wang, H18
Wang, Y18
Wang, Y18
Xiong, X18
Xu, L18
Waye, MMY59
Tsui, SKW59
Xue, H45
Wong, JTF45
Galver, LM58
Fan, JB58
Gunderson, K58
Murray, SS30
Oliphant, AR19
Chee, MS31
Montpetit, A61
Chagnon, F61
Ferretti, V61
Leboeuf, M61
Olivier, JF48
Phillips, MS61
Roumy, S58
Sallée, C63
Verner, A61
Hudson, TJ22
Kwok, PY2
Cai, D2
Koboldt, DC39
Miller, RD39
Pawlikowska, L2
TaillonMiller, P39
Xiao, M2
Tsui, LC20
Mak, W20
You, QS20
Tam, PKH20
Nakamura, Y33 27
Kawaguchi, T27
Kitamoto, T27
Morizono, T27
Nagashima, A27
Ohnishi, Y27
Sekine, A27
Tanaka, T27
Tsunoda, T27
Deloukas, P29
Bird, CP29
Delgado, M29
Dermitzakis, ET29
Gwilliam, R29
Hunt, S29
Morrison, J43
Powell, D29
Stranger, BE29
Whittaker, P29
Bentley, DR50
Daly, MJ62 5
De Bakker, PIW62 5
Barrett, J62 5
Chretien, YR62
Maller, J62 5
McCarroll, S62 5
Patterson, N62
Pe'Er, I15
Price, A62
Purcell, S5
Richter, DJ62
Sabeti, P62
Saxena, R62 5
Schaffner, SF62
Sham, PC20
Varilly, P62
Stein, LD7
Krishnan, L7
Smith, AV7
TelloRuiz, MK7
Thorisson, GA53
Chakravarti, A57
Chen, PE57
Cutler, DJ57
Kashuk, CS57
Lin, S57
Abecasis, GR40
Guan, W40
Li, Y40
Munro, HM32
Qin, ZS40
Thomas, DJ52
McVean, G46
Auton, A46
Bottolo, L46
Cardin, N46
Eyheramendy, S46
Freeman, C46
Marchini, J46
Myers, S46
Spencer, C62
Stephens, M42
Donnelly, P46
Cardon, LR37
Clarke, G28
Evans, DM28
Morris, AP28
Weir, BS55
Johnson, TA27
Mullikin, JC8
Sherry, ST36
Feolo, M36
Skol, A42
Zhang, H1
Matsuda, I38
Fukushima, Y56
MacEr, DR49
Suda, E11
Rotimi, CN23
Adebamowo, CA25
Ajayi, I25
Aniagwu, T25
Marshall, PA24
Nkwodimmah, C25
Royal, CDM23
Leppert, MF47
Dixon, M47
Peiffer, A47
Qiu, R4
Kent, A9
Kato, K41
Niikawa, N16
Adewole, IF25
Knoppers, BM63
Foster, MW13
Clayton, EW54
Watkin, J10
Muzny, D3
Nazareth, L3
Sodergren, E3
Weinstock, GM3
Yakub, I3
Birren, BW62
Wilson, RK39
Fulton, LL39
Rogers, J29
Burton, J29
Carter, NP29
Clee, CM29
Griffiths, M29
Jones, MC29
McLay, K29
Plumb, RW29
Ross, MT29
Sims, SK29
Willey, DL29
Chen, Z35
Han, H35
Kang, L35
Godbout, M51
Wallenburg, JC61
L'Archevêque, P
Bellemare, G
Saeki, K12
Wang, H26
An, D26
Fu, H26
Li, Q26
Wang, Z26
Wang, R21
Holden, AL58
Brooks, LD8
McEwen, JE8
Guyer, MS8
Wang, VO8 60
Peterson, JL8
Shi, M34
Spiegel, J60
Sung, LM14
Zacharia, LF8
Collins, FS8
Kennedy, K51
Jamieson, R10
Stewart, J10
 
Issue Date2007
 
PublisherNature Publishing Group. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.nature.com/nature
 
CitationNature, 2007, v. 449 n. 7164, p. 851-861 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06258
 
AbstractWe describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r 2 of between 0.9 and 0.96 depending on population. We demonstrate that the current generation of commercial genome-wide genotyping products captures common Phase II SNPs with an average maximum r 2 of up to 0.8 in African and up to 0.95 in non-African populations, and that potential gains in power in association studies can be obtained through imputation. These data also reveal novel aspects of the structure of linkage disequilibrium. We show that 10-30% of pairs of individuals within a population share at least one region of extended genetic identity arising from recent ancestry and that up to 1% of all common variants are untaggable, primarily because they lie within recombination hotspots. We show that recombination rates vary systematically around genes and between genes of different function. Finally, we demonstrate increased differentiation at non-synonymous, compared to synonymous, SNPs, resulting from systematic differences in the strength or efficacy of natural selection between populations. ©2007 Nature Publishing Group.
 
ISSN0028-0836
2013 Impact Factor: 42.351
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06258
 
PubMed Central IDPMC2689609
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000250230600036
 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorFrazer, KA
 
dc.contributor.authorBallinger, DG
 
dc.contributor.authorCox, DR
 
dc.contributor.authorHinds, DA
 
dc.contributor.authorStuve, LL
 
dc.contributor.authorGibbs, RA
 
dc.contributor.authorBelmont, JW
 
dc.contributor.authorBoudreau, A
 
dc.contributor.authorHardenbol, P
 
dc.contributor.authorLeal, SM
 
dc.contributor.authorPasternak, S
 
dc.contributor.authorWheeler, DA
 
dc.contributor.authorWillis, TD
 
dc.contributor.authorYu, F
 
dc.contributor.authorYang, H
 
dc.contributor.authorZeng, C
 
dc.contributor.authorGao, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorHu, H
 
dc.contributor.authorHu, W
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, C
 
dc.contributor.authorLin, W
 
dc.contributor.authorLiu, S
 
dc.contributor.authorPan, H
 
dc.contributor.authorTang, X
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, J
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, W
 
dc.contributor.authorYu, J
 
dc.contributor.authorZhang, B
 
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Q
 
dc.contributor.authorZhao, H
 
dc.contributor.authorZhao, H
 
dc.contributor.authorZhou, J
 
dc.contributor.authorGabriel, SB
 
dc.contributor.authorBarry, R
 
dc.contributor.authorBlumenstiel, B
 
dc.contributor.authorCamargo, A
 
dc.contributor.authorDefelice, M
 
dc.contributor.authorFaggart, M
 
dc.contributor.authorGoyette, M
 
dc.contributor.authorGupta, S
 
dc.contributor.authorMoore, J
 
dc.contributor.authorNguyen, H
 
dc.contributor.authorOnofrio, RC
 
dc.contributor.authorParkin, M
 
dc.contributor.authorRoy, J
 
dc.contributor.authorStahl, E
 
dc.contributor.authorWinchester, E
 
dc.contributor.authorZiaugra, L
 
dc.contributor.authorAltshuler, D
 
dc.contributor.authorShen, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorYao, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorHuang, W
 
dc.contributor.authorChu, X
 
dc.contributor.authorHe, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorJin, L
 
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorShen, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorSun, W
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, H
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorXiong, X
 
dc.contributor.authorXu, L
 
dc.contributor.authorWaye, MMY
 
dc.contributor.authorTsui, SKW
 
dc.contributor.authorXue, H
 
dc.contributor.authorWong, JTF
 
dc.contributor.authorGalver, LM
 
dc.contributor.authorFan, JB
 
dc.contributor.authorGunderson, K
 
dc.contributor.authorMurray, SS
 
dc.contributor.authorOliphant, AR
 
dc.contributor.authorChee, MS
 
dc.contributor.authorMontpetit, A
 
dc.contributor.authorChagnon, F
 
dc.contributor.authorFerretti, V
 
dc.contributor.authorLeboeuf, M
 
dc.contributor.authorOlivier, JF
 
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, MS
 
dc.contributor.authorRoumy, S
 
dc.contributor.authorSallée, C
 
dc.contributor.authorVerner, A
 
dc.contributor.authorHudson, TJ
 
dc.contributor.authorKwok, PY
 
dc.contributor.authorCai, D
 
dc.contributor.authorKoboldt, DC
 
dc.contributor.authorMiller, RD
 
dc.contributor.authorPawlikowska, L
 
dc.contributor.authorTaillonMiller, P
 
dc.contributor.authorXiao, M
 
dc.contributor.authorTsui, LC
 
dc.contributor.authorMak, W
 
dc.contributor.authorYou, QS
 
dc.contributor.authorTam, PKH
 
dc.contributor.authorNakamura, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorKawaguchi, T
 
dc.contributor.authorKitamoto, T
 
dc.contributor.authorMorizono, T
 
dc.contributor.authorNagashima, A
 
dc.contributor.authorOhnishi, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorSekine, A
 
dc.contributor.authorTanaka, T
 
dc.contributor.authorTsunoda, T
 
dc.contributor.authorDeloukas, P
 
dc.contributor.authorBird, CP
 
dc.contributor.authorDelgado, M
 
dc.contributor.authorDermitzakis, ET
 
dc.contributor.authorGwilliam, R
 
dc.contributor.authorHunt, S
 
dc.contributor.authorMorrison, J
 
dc.contributor.authorPowell, D
 
dc.contributor.authorStranger, BE
 
dc.contributor.authorWhittaker, P
 
dc.contributor.authorBentley, DR
 
dc.contributor.authorDaly, MJ
 
dc.contributor.authorDe Bakker, PIW
 
dc.contributor.authorBarrett, J
 
dc.contributor.authorChretien, YR
 
dc.contributor.authorMaller, J
 
dc.contributor.authorMcCarroll, S
 
dc.contributor.authorPatterson, N
 
dc.contributor.authorPe'Er, I
 
dc.contributor.authorPrice, A
 
dc.contributor.authorPurcell, S
 
dc.contributor.authorRichter, DJ
 
dc.contributor.authorSabeti, P
 
dc.contributor.authorSaxena, R
 
dc.contributor.authorSchaffner, SF
 
dc.contributor.authorSham, PC
 
dc.contributor.authorVarilly, P
 
dc.contributor.authorStein, LD
 
dc.contributor.authorKrishnan, L
 
dc.contributor.authorSmith, AV
 
dc.contributor.authorTelloRuiz, MK
 
dc.contributor.authorThorisson, GA
 
dc.contributor.authorChakravarti, A
 
dc.contributor.authorChen, PE
 
dc.contributor.authorCutler, DJ
 
dc.contributor.authorKashuk, CS
 
dc.contributor.authorLin, S
 
dc.contributor.authorAbecasis, GR
 
dc.contributor.authorGuan, W
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorMunro, HM
 
dc.contributor.authorQin, ZS
 
dc.contributor.authorThomas, DJ
 
dc.contributor.authorMcVean, G
 
dc.contributor.authorAuton, A
 
dc.contributor.authorBottolo, L
 
dc.contributor.authorCardin, N
 
dc.contributor.authorEyheramendy, S
 
dc.contributor.authorFreeman, C
 
dc.contributor.authorMarchini, J
 
dc.contributor.authorMyers, S
 
dc.contributor.authorSpencer, C
 
dc.contributor.authorStephens, M
 
dc.contributor.authorDonnelly, P
 
dc.contributor.authorCardon, LR
 
dc.contributor.authorClarke, G
 
dc.contributor.authorEvans, DM
 
dc.contributor.authorMorris, AP
 
dc.contributor.authorWeir, BS
 
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, TA
 
dc.contributor.authorMullikin, JC
 
dc.contributor.authorSherry, ST
 
dc.contributor.authorFeolo, M
 
dc.contributor.authorSkol, A
 
dc.contributor.authorZhang, H
 
dc.contributor.authorMatsuda, I
 
dc.contributor.authorFukushima, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorMacEr, DR
 
dc.contributor.authorSuda, E
 
dc.contributor.authorRotimi, CN
 
dc.contributor.authorAdebamowo, CA
 
dc.contributor.authorAjayi, I
 
dc.contributor.authorAniagwu, T
 
dc.contributor.authorMarshall, PA
 
dc.contributor.authorNkwodimmah, C
 
dc.contributor.authorRoyal, CDM
 
dc.contributor.authorLeppert, MF
 
dc.contributor.authorDixon, M
 
dc.contributor.authorPeiffer, A
 
dc.contributor.authorQiu, R
 
dc.contributor.authorKent, A
 
dc.contributor.authorKato, K
 
dc.contributor.authorNiikawa, N
 
dc.contributor.authorAdewole, IF
 
dc.contributor.authorKnoppers, BM
 
dc.contributor.authorFoster, MW
 
dc.contributor.authorClayton, EW
 
dc.contributor.authorWatkin, J
 
dc.contributor.authorMuzny, D
 
dc.contributor.authorNazareth, L
 
dc.contributor.authorSodergren, E
 
dc.contributor.authorWeinstock, GM
 
dc.contributor.authorYakub, I
 
dc.contributor.authorBirren, BW
 
dc.contributor.authorWilson, RK
 
dc.contributor.authorFulton, LL
 
dc.contributor.authorRogers, J
 
dc.contributor.authorBurton, J
 
dc.contributor.authorCarter, NP
 
dc.contributor.authorClee, CM
 
dc.contributor.authorGriffiths, M
 
dc.contributor.authorJones, MC
 
dc.contributor.authorMcLay, K
 
dc.contributor.authorPlumb, RW
 
dc.contributor.authorRoss, MT
 
dc.contributor.authorSims, SK
 
dc.contributor.authorWilley, DL
 
dc.contributor.authorChen, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorHan, H
 
dc.contributor.authorKang, L
 
dc.contributor.authorGodbout, M
 
dc.contributor.authorWallenburg, JC
 
dc.contributor.authorL'Archevêque, P
 
dc.contributor.authorBellemare, G
 
dc.contributor.authorSaeki, K
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, H
 
dc.contributor.authorAn, D
 
dc.contributor.authorFu, H
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, Q
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, R
 
dc.contributor.authorHolden, AL
 
dc.contributor.authorBrooks, LD
 
dc.contributor.authorMcEwen, JE
 
dc.contributor.authorGuyer, MS
 
dc.contributor.authorWang, VO
 
dc.contributor.authorPeterson, JL
 
dc.contributor.authorShi, M
 
dc.contributor.authorSpiegel, J
 
dc.contributor.authorSung, LM
 
dc.contributor.authorZacharia, LF
 
dc.contributor.authorCollins, FS
 
dc.contributor.authorKennedy, K
 
dc.contributor.authorJamieson, R
 
dc.contributor.authorStewart, J
 
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T08:39:55Z
 
dc.date.available2010-09-06T08:39:55Z
 
dc.date.issued2007
 
dc.description.abstractWe describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r 2 of between 0.9 and 0.96 depending on population. We demonstrate that the current generation of commercial genome-wide genotyping products captures common Phase II SNPs with an average maximum r 2 of up to 0.8 in African and up to 0.95 in non-African populations, and that potential gains in power in association studies can be obtained through imputation. These data also reveal novel aspects of the structure of linkage disequilibrium. We show that 10-30% of pairs of individuals within a population share at least one region of extended genetic identity arising from recent ancestry and that up to 1% of all common variants are untaggable, primarily because they lie within recombination hotspots. We show that recombination rates vary systematically around genes and between genes of different function. Finally, we demonstrate increased differentiation at non-synonymous, compared to synonymous, SNPs, resulting from systematic differences in the strength or efficacy of natural selection between populations. ©2007 Nature Publishing Group.
 
dc.description.naturelink_to_OA_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationNature, 2007, v. 449 n. 7164, p. 851-861 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06258
 
dc.identifier.citeulike1780948
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature06258
 
dc.identifier.eissn1476-4687
 
dc.identifier.epage861
 
dc.identifier.hkuros139461
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000250230600036
 
dc.identifier.issn0028-0836
2013 Impact Factor: 42.351
 
dc.identifier.issue7164
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC2689609
 
dc.identifier.pmid17943122
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-35348983887
 
dc.identifier.spage851
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/83344
 
dc.identifier.volume449
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherNature Publishing Group. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.nature.com/nature
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom
 
dc.relation.ispartofNature
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.titleA second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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<date.accessioned>2010-09-06T08:39:55Z</date.accessioned>
<date.available>2010-09-06T08:39:55Z</date.available>
<date.issued>2007</date.issued>
<identifier.citation>Nature, 2007, v. 449 n. 7164, p. 851-861</identifier.citation>
<identifier.issn>0028-0836</identifier.issn>
<identifier.uri>http://hdl.handle.net/10722/83344</identifier.uri>
<description.abstract>We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r 2 of between 0.9 and 0.96 depending on population. We demonstrate that the current generation of commercial genome-wide genotyping products captures common Phase II SNPs with an average maximum r 2 of up to 0.8 in African and up to 0.95 in non-African populations, and that potential gains in power in association studies can be obtained through imputation. These data also reveal novel aspects of the structure of linkage disequilibrium. We show that 10-30% of pairs of individuals within a population share at least one region of extended genetic identity arising from recent ancestry and that up to 1% of all common variants are untaggable, primarily because they lie within recombination hotspots. We show that recombination rates vary systematically around genes and between genes of different function. Finally, we demonstrate increased differentiation at non-synonymous, compared to synonymous, SNPs, resulting from systematic differences in the strength or efficacy of natural selection between populations. &#169;2007 Nature Publishing Group.</description.abstract>
<language>eng</language>
<publisher>Nature Publishing Group. The Journal&apos;s web site is located at http://www.nature.com/nature</publisher>
<relation.ispartof>Nature</relation.ispartof>
<title>A second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs</title>
<type>Article</type>
<identifier.openurl>http://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&amp;issn=0028-0836&amp;volume=449&amp;issue=7164&amp;spage=851&amp;epage=861&amp;date=2007&amp;atitle=A+second+generation+human+haplotype+map+of+over+3.1+million+SNPs+(Co-PI+of+Hong+Kong+Centre+which+responsible+2.5%+of+genome)</identifier.openurl>
<description.nature>link_to_OA_fulltext</description.nature>
<identifier.doi>10.1038/nature06258</identifier.doi>
<identifier.pmid>17943122</identifier.pmid>
<identifier.pmcid>PMC2689609</identifier.pmcid>
<identifier.scopus>eid_2-s2.0-35348983887</identifier.scopus>
<identifier.hkuros>139461</identifier.hkuros>
<relation.references>http://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-35348983887&amp;selection=ref&amp;src=s&amp;origin=recordpage</relation.references>
<identifier.volume>449</identifier.volume>
<identifier.issue>7164</identifier.issue>
<identifier.spage>851</identifier.spage>
<identifier.epage>861</identifier.epage>
<identifier.eissn>1476-4687</identifier.eissn>
<identifier.isi>WOS:000250230600036</identifier.isi>
<publisher.place>United Kingdom</publisher.place>
<identifier.citeulike>1780948</identifier.citeulike>
<bitstream.url>http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/83344/1/re01.htm</bitstream.url>
</item>
Author Affiliations
  1. Beijing Normal University
  2. University of California, San Francisco
  3. Baylor College of Medicine
  4. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
  5. Massachusetts General Hospital
  6. Pacific Biosciences
  7. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
  8. National Human Genome Research Institute
  9. Genetic Interest Group
  10. Wellcome Trust
  11. University of Tsukuba
  12. Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
  13. University of Oklahoma
  14. University of Maryland School of Law
  15. Columbia University in the City of New York
  16. Nagasaki University
  17. Perlegen Sciences, Inc.
  18. Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai
  19. Complete Genomics Inc.
  20. The University of Hong Kong
  21. Human Genetic Resource Administration of China
  22. Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
  23. Howard University
  24. CASE School of Medicine
  25. University of Ibadan
  26. Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China
  27. Riken
  28. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
  29. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
  30. Scripps Research Institute
  31. Prognosys Biosciences Inc.
  32. International Epidemiology Institute
  33. Institute of Medical Science The University of Tokyo
  34. Novartis Pharma
  35. Chinese Academy of Sciences
  36. National Center for Biotechnology Information
  37. Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  38. Health Sciences University of Hokkaido
  39. Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine
  40. University of Michigan School of Public Health
  41. Kyoto University
  42. University of Chicago
  43. University of Cambridge
  44. Fudan University
  45. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
  46. University of Oxford
  47. University of Utah Health Sciences Center
  48. Affymetrix
  49. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO Bangkok)
  50. Solexa Ltd.
  51. null
  52. University of California, Santa Cruz
  53. University of Leicester
  54. Vanderbilt University
  55. University of Washington Seattle
  56. Shinshu University Faculty of Medicine
  57. The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
  58. Illumina, Inc.
  59. Chinese University of Hong Kong
  60. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda
  61. McGill University
  62. Broad Institute
  63. Université de Montréal