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Article: The identification of credit card encoders by hierarchical cluster analysis of the jitters of magnetic stripes

TitleThe identification of credit card encoders by hierarchical cluster analysis of the jitters of magnetic stripes
Authors
KeywordsCredit cards
Document examination
F2F encoding
Forensic science
Hierarchical cluster analysis
Jitter
Magnetic stripe
Magnetic stripe encoding
Issue Date1999
PublisherElsevier Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/711629/description#description
Citation
Science And Justice - Journal Of The Forensic Science Society, 1999, v. 39 n. 4, p. 231-238 How to Cite?
AbstractThe relative bit density variation graphs of 207 specimen credit cards processed by 12 encoding machines were examined first visually, and then classified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. Twenty-nine credit cards being treated as 'questioned' samples were tested by way of cluster analysis against 'controls' derived from known encoders. It was found that hierarchical cluster analysis provided a high accuracy of identification with all 29 'questioned' samples classified correctly. On the other hand, although visual comparison of jitter graphs was less discriminating, it was nevertheless capable of giving a reasonably accurate result.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/82788
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 1.959
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.001
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLeung, SCen_HK
dc.contributor.authorFung, WKen_HK
dc.contributor.authorWong, KHen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T08:33:26Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-06T08:33:26Z-
dc.date.issued1999en_HK
dc.identifier.citationScience And Justice - Journal Of The Forensic Science Society, 1999, v. 39 n. 4, p. 231-238en_HK
dc.identifier.issn1355-0306en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/82788-
dc.description.abstractThe relative bit density variation graphs of 207 specimen credit cards processed by 12 encoding machines were examined first visually, and then classified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. Twenty-nine credit cards being treated as 'questioned' samples were tested by way of cluster analysis against 'controls' derived from known encoders. It was found that hierarchical cluster analysis provided a high accuracy of identification with all 29 'questioned' samples classified correctly. On the other hand, although visual comparison of jitter graphs was less discriminating, it was nevertheless capable of giving a reasonably accurate result.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherElsevier Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/711629/description#description en_HK
dc.relation.ispartofScience and Justice - Journal of the Forensic Science Societyen_HK
dc.subjectCredit cardsen_HK
dc.subjectDocument examinationen_HK
dc.subjectF2F encodingen_HK
dc.subjectForensic scienceen_HK
dc.subjectHierarchical cluster analysisen_HK
dc.subjectJitteren_HK
dc.subjectMagnetic stripeen_HK
dc.subjectMagnetic stripe encodingen_HK
dc.titleThe identification of credit card encoders by hierarchical cluster analysis of the jitters of magnetic stripesen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=1355-0306&volume=39&spage=231&epage=238&date=1999&atitle=The+identification+of+credit+card+encoders+by+hierarchical+cluster+analysis+of+the+jitters+of+magnetic+stripesen_HK
dc.identifier.emailFung, WK: wingfung@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityFung, WK=rp00696en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.pmid10795413en_HK
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0032824533en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros55968en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-0032824533&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume39en_HK
dc.identifier.issue4en_HK
dc.identifier.spage231en_HK
dc.identifier.epage238en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000083384000004-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLeung, SC=36894168000en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridFung, WK=13310399400en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWong, KH=37096579100en_HK

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