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Article: Early child health in Lahore, Pakistan: V. Feeding patterns

TitleEarly child health in Lahore, Pakistan: V. Feeding patterns
Authors
Keywordsfeeding patterns
infancy
Pakistan
urbanization
Issue Date1993
Citation
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal Of Paediatrics, Supplement, 1993, v. 82 n. 390, p. 47-61 How to Cite?
AbstractThe feeding practices of children (n = 1476) from birth to 24 months, as determined in a longitudinal study, in Lahore, Pakistan, are presented. Four socioeconomic groups at various levels of urbanization were included; a village, periurban slum, urban slum and an upper middle class. Initiation of breastfeeding was delayed in all the neonates. Sixty-five percent of the periurban slum mothers and 45% of the village mothers had not started breastfeeding at 48 hours after the birth of the infant. Prelacteal feedings, especially of herb water and honey, were the norm. Breastfeeding was highly prevalent. Eighty-seven to 98% of the infants in all the areas were breastfed at one month of age. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare, with 9% at one month, declining rapidly with age and being highly influenced by season. Partial breastfeeding was the most common mode of feeding. Water in addition to human milk was given by 45-73% of the mothers living in the urban slum, village and periurban slum at one month of age. Fresh animal milk and/or commercial formula was already being given at 1 month by 22-64% of the mothers in all areas. Commercial formula was the preferred food in the upper middle class, while in the other three areas it was rare and fresh animal milk was mainly used. More than 50% of the mothers in the village and in the periurban slum gave diluted animal milk even beyond the age of 10-15 months. In the upper middle class 50% of the infants were fed semisolids at the age of four months, while in the village, the periurban and the urban slum at 6 months of age only 10%, 12% and 47% of the infants received semisolids. The results of this study indicate that breastfeeding was highly prevalent in the three poorest areas. However, in all the areas initiation of breastfeeding was delayed and prelacteal feeding was the norm. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare, feeding bottles were used by 82-100% of the mothers to feed supplements and human milk substitutes, in the four areas.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/80182
ISSN
2014 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.123
ISI Accession Number ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorAshraf, RNen_HK
dc.contributor.authorJalil, Fen_HK
dc.contributor.authorKhan, SRen_HK
dc.contributor.authorZaman, Sen_HK
dc.contributor.authorKarlberg, Jen_HK
dc.contributor.authorLindblad, BSen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHanson, LAen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T08:03:21Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-06T08:03:21Z-
dc.date.issued1993en_HK
dc.identifier.citationActa Paediatrica, International Journal Of Paediatrics, Supplement, 1993, v. 82 n. 390, p. 47-61en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0803-5326en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/80182-
dc.description.abstractThe feeding practices of children (n = 1476) from birth to 24 months, as determined in a longitudinal study, in Lahore, Pakistan, are presented. Four socioeconomic groups at various levels of urbanization were included; a village, periurban slum, urban slum and an upper middle class. Initiation of breastfeeding was delayed in all the neonates. Sixty-five percent of the periurban slum mothers and 45% of the village mothers had not started breastfeeding at 48 hours after the birth of the infant. Prelacteal feedings, especially of herb water and honey, were the norm. Breastfeeding was highly prevalent. Eighty-seven to 98% of the infants in all the areas were breastfed at one month of age. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare, with 9% at one month, declining rapidly with age and being highly influenced by season. Partial breastfeeding was the most common mode of feeding. Water in addition to human milk was given by 45-73% of the mothers living in the urban slum, village and periurban slum at one month of age. Fresh animal milk and/or commercial formula was already being given at 1 month by 22-64% of the mothers in all areas. Commercial formula was the preferred food in the upper middle class, while in the other three areas it was rare and fresh animal milk was mainly used. More than 50% of the mothers in the village and in the periurban slum gave diluted animal milk even beyond the age of 10-15 months. In the upper middle class 50% of the infants were fed semisolids at the age of four months, while in the village, the periurban and the urban slum at 6 months of age only 10%, 12% and 47% of the infants received semisolids. The results of this study indicate that breastfeeding was highly prevalent in the three poorest areas. However, in all the areas initiation of breastfeeding was delayed and prelacteal feeding was the norm. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare, feeding bottles were used by 82-100% of the mothers to feed supplements and human milk substitutes, in the four areas.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofActa Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics, Supplementen_HK
dc.subjectfeeding patternsen_HK
dc.subjectinfancyen_HK
dc.subjectPakistanen_HK
dc.subjecturbanizationen_HK
dc.titleEarly child health in Lahore, Pakistan: V. Feeding patternsen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.emailKarlberg, J: jpekarl@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityKarlberg, J=rp00400en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.pmid8219467-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0027298464en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros30226en_HK
dc.identifier.volume82en_HK
dc.identifier.issue390en_HK
dc.identifier.spage47en_HK
dc.identifier.epage61en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:A1993MB05200006-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridAshraf, RN=6603885395en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridJalil, F=7004018034en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKhan, SR=7404042716en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridZaman, S=7006571869en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKarlberg, J=7005218406en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLindblad, BS=7101686934en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHanson, LA=16542642900en_HK

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