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Article: Heavy metal and trace element distributions in groundwater in natural slopes and highly urbanized spaces in Mid-Levels area, Hong Kong

TitleHeavy metal and trace element distributions in groundwater in natural slopes and highly urbanized spaces in Mid-Levels area, Hong Kong
Authors
Issue Date2006
PublisherPergamon. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/watres
Citation
Water Research, 2006, v. 40 n. 4, p. 753-767 How to Cite?
AbstractThe lower slope of the Mid-Levels area, Hong Kong, is one the most heavily urbanized coastal areas in the world. A comprehensive groundwater heavy metal and trace element study was conducted in the Mid-Levels area aiming to investigate the impacts of urbanization on the aqueous distributions of these chemicals. Groundwater samples were collected in the upper natural slopes and the lower highly urbanized spaces in the area in different seasons, and analyzed for heavy metal and trace element contents. Compared to the results from natural slopes, groundwater samples in the developed spaces did not exhibit significant elevated levels in Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe, which are commonly found in stormwater. On the other hand, the samples were found to have elevated contents in Mn, V, Co and Mo, minor stormwater-related heavy metals, suggesting that stormwater drains may be leaking to some extent. However, the results suggested that the vadose zone could remove many of the heavy metals, protecting groundwater from being contaminated seriously. Statistical analysis suggested that a certain amount of Mn and Co was likely to be re-mobilized from natural soils due to the changes in local redox conditions, while Mn, V, Co and Mo may also be derived from steel corrosion as a result of prolonged submergence. Besides, the average B concentration in the developed spaces was about eight times higher than that in the natural slopes, indicating the presence of sewage. The mean Se concentration in the developed spaces was about 100 times higher than that in the natural slopes. About 40% of samples in the developed spaces contained Se level higher than the drinking water guideline value proposed by the World Health Organization. Se was found to be positively correlated with B and SO4 2- (R=0.534 and 0.631, respectively), suggesting that Se may also be related to leakage from sewage pipes. Part of the Sr may come from leakage of flushing water and/or sewage as Sr was strongly correlated with Cl- (R=0.929). According to the measured results, deep groundwater samples collected from piezometers (>10 m in depth) in the urbanized spaces appeared to be virtually free from any anthropogenic contaminations. This study may shed important light on the identification and evaluation of leakage from service pipes in a particular area based on aqueous distributions of heavy metals and trace elements. Moreover, the above findings may be instructional for other coastal cities with a similar level of urban development to understand the potential threats to their groundwater resources. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/73005
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 5.991
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.772
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLeung, CMen_HK
dc.contributor.authorJiao, JJen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-09-06T06:47:09Z-
dc.date.available2010-09-06T06:47:09Z-
dc.date.issued2006en_HK
dc.identifier.citationWater Research, 2006, v. 40 n. 4, p. 753-767en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0043-1354en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/73005-
dc.description.abstractThe lower slope of the Mid-Levels area, Hong Kong, is one the most heavily urbanized coastal areas in the world. A comprehensive groundwater heavy metal and trace element study was conducted in the Mid-Levels area aiming to investigate the impacts of urbanization on the aqueous distributions of these chemicals. Groundwater samples were collected in the upper natural slopes and the lower highly urbanized spaces in the area in different seasons, and analyzed for heavy metal and trace element contents. Compared to the results from natural slopes, groundwater samples in the developed spaces did not exhibit significant elevated levels in Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe, which are commonly found in stormwater. On the other hand, the samples were found to have elevated contents in Mn, V, Co and Mo, minor stormwater-related heavy metals, suggesting that stormwater drains may be leaking to some extent. However, the results suggested that the vadose zone could remove many of the heavy metals, protecting groundwater from being contaminated seriously. Statistical analysis suggested that a certain amount of Mn and Co was likely to be re-mobilized from natural soils due to the changes in local redox conditions, while Mn, V, Co and Mo may also be derived from steel corrosion as a result of prolonged submergence. Besides, the average B concentration in the developed spaces was about eight times higher than that in the natural slopes, indicating the presence of sewage. The mean Se concentration in the developed spaces was about 100 times higher than that in the natural slopes. About 40% of samples in the developed spaces contained Se level higher than the drinking water guideline value proposed by the World Health Organization. Se was found to be positively correlated with B and SO4 2- (R=0.534 and 0.631, respectively), suggesting that Se may also be related to leakage from sewage pipes. Part of the Sr may come from leakage of flushing water and/or sewage as Sr was strongly correlated with Cl- (R=0.929). According to the measured results, deep groundwater samples collected from piezometers (>10 m in depth) in the urbanized spaces appeared to be virtually free from any anthropogenic contaminations. This study may shed important light on the identification and evaluation of leakage from service pipes in a particular area based on aqueous distributions of heavy metals and trace elements. Moreover, the above findings may be instructional for other coastal cities with a similar level of urban development to understand the potential threats to their groundwater resources. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherPergamon. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/watresen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofWater Researchen_HK
dc.subject.meshCitiesen_HK
dc.subject.meshEnvironmental Monitoringen_HK
dc.subject.meshHong Kongen_HK
dc.subject.meshMetals, Heavy - analysisen_HK
dc.subject.meshSoil Pollutants - analysisen_HK
dc.subject.meshTrace Elements - analysisen_HK
dc.subject.meshWater Pollutants - analysisen_HK
dc.titleHeavy metal and trace element distributions in groundwater in natural slopes and highly urbanized spaces in Mid-Levels area, Hong Kongen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0043-1354&volume=40&issue=4&spage=753&epage=767&date=2006&atitle=Heavy+metal+and+trace+element+distributions+in+groundwater+in+natural+slopes+and+highly+urbanized+spaces+in+Mid-Levels+area,+Hong+Kongen_HK
dc.identifier.emailJiao, JJ:jjiao@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityJiao, JJ=rp00712en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.watres.2005.12.016en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid16448684-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-32544445263en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros120792en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-32544445263&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume40en_HK
dc.identifier.issue4en_HK
dc.identifier.spage753en_HK
dc.identifier.epage767en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000235949800014-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLeung, CM=35146017000en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridJiao, JJ=7102382963en_HK

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