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Article: Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds

TitleEffect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds
Authors
KeywordsChemical contaminant
Disease
Oomycete
Pathogen
Saprolegnia
Issue Date2009
PublisherAcademic Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/envres
Citation
Environmental Research, 2009, v. 109 n. 1, p. 40-45 How to Cite?
AbstractSome causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds in the field and examined the interactive effects of road deicing salt and water molds, two known sources of mortality for amphibian embryos, on two species, R. clamitans and A. maculatum in the laboratory. We found that exposure to water molds did not affect embryonic survivorship in either A. maculatum or R. clamitans, regardless of the concentration of road salt to which their eggs were exposed. Road salt decreased survivorship of A. maculatum, but not R. clamitans, and frequency of malformations increased significantly in both species at the highest salinity concentration. The lack of an effect of water molds on survival of embryos and no interaction between road salt and water molds indicates that observations of colonization of these eggs by water molds in the field probably represent a secondary invasion of unfertilized eggs or of embryos that had died of other causes. Given increasing salinization of freshwater habitats on several continents and the global distribution of water molds, our results suggest that some amphibian species may not be susceptible to the combined effects of these factors, permitting amphibian decline researchers to devote their attention to other potential causes. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/60686
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 3.088
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.452
ISI Accession Number ID
Funding AgencyGrant Number
US Environmental Protection Agency (GRO Fellowship)
Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force
US Geological Survey Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative
Funding Information:

We are grateful to D. Finan for assisting with field and laboratory work, J. Gibbs for helpful discussion, and J. Arrigoni, O. Hyman, P. Langhammer, A. Picco, and J. Sopacua for constructive comments on previous drafts of this manuscript. Funding was provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (GRO Fellowship to N.E.K.), and the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force and US Geological Survey Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (Seed Grant to N.E.K.).

References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorKarraker, NEen_HK
dc.contributor.authorRuthig, GRen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-05-31T04:16:30Z-
dc.date.available2010-05-31T04:16:30Z-
dc.date.issued2009en_HK
dc.identifier.citationEnvironmental Research, 2009, v. 109 n. 1, p. 40-45en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0013-9351en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/60686-
dc.description.abstractSome causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds in the field and examined the interactive effects of road deicing salt and water molds, two known sources of mortality for amphibian embryos, on two species, R. clamitans and A. maculatum in the laboratory. We found that exposure to water molds did not affect embryonic survivorship in either A. maculatum or R. clamitans, regardless of the concentration of road salt to which their eggs were exposed. Road salt decreased survivorship of A. maculatum, but not R. clamitans, and frequency of malformations increased significantly in both species at the highest salinity concentration. The lack of an effect of water molds on survival of embryos and no interaction between road salt and water molds indicates that observations of colonization of these eggs by water molds in the field probably represent a secondary invasion of unfertilized eggs or of embryos that had died of other causes. Given increasing salinization of freshwater habitats on several continents and the global distribution of water molds, our results suggest that some amphibian species may not be susceptible to the combined effects of these factors, permitting amphibian decline researchers to devote their attention to other potential causes. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherAcademic Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/envresen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofEnvironmental Researchen_HK
dc.subjectChemical contaminanten_HK
dc.subjectDiseaseen_HK
dc.subjectOomyceteen_HK
dc.subjectPathogenen_HK
dc.subjectSaprolegniaen_HK
dc.titleEffect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water moldsen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0013-9351&volume=109&spage=40&epage=45&date=2009&atitle=Effect+of+road+deicing+salt+on+the+susceptibility+of+amphibian+embryos+to+infection+by+water+moldsen_HK
dc.identifier.emailKarraker, NE: karraker@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityKarraker, NE=rp00714en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.envres.2008.09.001en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid18976747-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-57649221507en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros151303en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-57649221507&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume109en_HK
dc.identifier.issue1en_HK
dc.identifier.spage40en_HK
dc.identifier.epage45en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000262462100006-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKarraker, NE=8708421900en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridRuthig, GR=6507005016en_HK

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