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Article: Analogy versus explicit learning of a modified basketball shooting task: Performance and kinematic outcomes
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TitleAnalogy versus explicit learning of a modified basketball shooting task: Performance and kinematic outcomes
 
AuthorsLam, WK1
Maxwell, JP1
Masters, RSW1
 
KeywordsAttention
Implicit motor learning
Instruction
Movement components
Working memory
 
Issue Date2009
 
PublisherTaylor & Francis Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/02640414.asp
 
CitationJournal Of Sports Sciences, 2009, v. 27 n. 2, p. 179-191 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410802448764
 
AbstractThe effects of differential instructional sets on motor skill acquisition were investigated using performance outcome and kinematic measures. Participants were provided with a single analogical instruction (analogy learning), a set of eight explicit (technical) instructions (explicit learning), or were not instructed (control). During a learning phase, participants (n = 9 for each condition) performed a modified basketball shooting task over 3 days (160 trials per day). On the fourth day, participants performed a test phase consisting of two 40-trial retention tests, separated by a 40-trial secondary task transfer test, and completed a verbal protocol describing in detail the techniques that they had used to perform the task. No performance differences were found during the two retention tests, indicating similar amounts of learning for all groups. During the transfer test, performance deteriorated for both the explicit and control conditions, but not for the analogy condition. Participants in the analogy condition reported significantly fewer technical rules. Although no group differences were reported for kinematic variables, identification of movement components supported the claim that explicit learners exert conscious control over their movements, whereas analogy learners use a more implicit (unconscious or automatic) mode of movement control.
 
ISSN0264-0414
2013 Impact Factor: 2.095
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410802448764
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000262513900010
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Competitive Earmarked Research GrantHKU 7231/04H
Hong Kong Research Grants Council
Funding Information:

This research was supported by a Competitive Earmarked Research Grant (HKU 7231/04H) awarded to the second and third authors by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council.

 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
GrantsInstruction, errorless learning and rehabilitation: Taking the spanner out of the works?
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorLam, WK
 
dc.contributor.authorMaxwell, JP
 
dc.contributor.authorMasters, RSW
 
dc.date.accessioned2010-05-31T04:12:03Z
 
dc.date.available2010-05-31T04:12:03Z
 
dc.date.issued2009
 
dc.description.abstractThe effects of differential instructional sets on motor skill acquisition were investigated using performance outcome and kinematic measures. Participants were provided with a single analogical instruction (analogy learning), a set of eight explicit (technical) instructions (explicit learning), or were not instructed (control). During a learning phase, participants (n = 9 for each condition) performed a modified basketball shooting task over 3 days (160 trials per day). On the fourth day, participants performed a test phase consisting of two 40-trial retention tests, separated by a 40-trial secondary task transfer test, and completed a verbal protocol describing in detail the techniques that they had used to perform the task. No performance differences were found during the two retention tests, indicating similar amounts of learning for all groups. During the transfer test, performance deteriorated for both the explicit and control conditions, but not for the analogy condition. Participants in the analogy condition reported significantly fewer technical rules. Although no group differences were reported for kinematic variables, identification of movement components supported the claim that explicit learners exert conscious control over their movements, whereas analogy learners use a more implicit (unconscious or automatic) mode of movement control.
 
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationJournal Of Sports Sciences, 2009, v. 27 n. 2, p. 179-191 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410802448764
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410802448764
 
dc.identifier.epage191
 
dc.identifier.hkuros154511
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000262513900010
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Competitive Earmarked Research GrantHKU 7231/04H
Hong Kong Research Grants Council
Funding Information:

This research was supported by a Competitive Earmarked Research Grant (HKU 7231/04H) awarded to the second and third authors by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council.

 
dc.identifier.issn0264-0414
2013 Impact Factor: 2.095
 
dc.identifier.issue2
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.pmid19153868
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-58949090646
 
dc.identifier.spage179
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/60495
 
dc.identifier.volume27
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherTaylor & Francis Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/02640414.asp
 
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom
 
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Sports Sciences
 
dc.relation.projectInstruction, errorless learning and rehabilitation: Taking the spanner out of the works?
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.subjectAttention
 
dc.subjectImplicit motor learning
 
dc.subjectInstruction
 
dc.subjectMovement components
 
dc.subjectWorking memory
 
dc.titleAnalogy versus explicit learning of a modified basketball shooting task: Performance and kinematic outcomes
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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Author Affiliations
  1. The University of Hong Kong