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Article: Prenatal malnutrition and adult Schizophrenia: Further evidence from the 1959-1961 chinese famine

TitlePrenatal malnutrition and adult Schizophrenia: Further evidence from the 1959-1961 chinese famine
Authors
KeywordsChina
Famine
Prenatal
Schizophrenia
Issue Date2009
PublisherOxford University Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/
Citation
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2009, v. 35 n. 3, p. 568-576 How to Cite?
AbstractObjective: Evidence from the 1944-1995 Dutch Hunger Winter and the 1959-1961 Chinese famines suggests that those conceived or in early gestation during famines, have a 2-fold increased risk of developing schizophrenia in adult life. We tested the hypothesis in a second Chinese population and also determined whether risk differed between urban and rural areas. Method: The risk of schizophrenia was examined in Liuzhou prefecture of Guangxi autonomous region. Rates were compared among those conceived before, during, and after the famine years. Based on the decline in birth rates, we predicted that those born in 1960 and 1961 would have been exposed to the famine during conception or early gestation. All psychiatric case records in Liuzhou psychiatric hospital for the years 1971 through 2001 were examined and clinical/sociodemographic data extracted by psychiatrists blind to exposure status. Data on births and deaths in the famine years were also available, and cumulative mortality was estimated from later demographic surveys. Evidence of famine was verified, and results were adjusted for mortality. Relative risks (RRs) for schizophrenia were calculated for the region as a whole and for urban and rural areas separately. Results: Mortality-adjusted RR for schizophrenia was 1.5 (1960) and 2.05 (1961), respectively. However, the effect was exclusively from the rural areas RR = 1.68 (1960) and RR=2.25 (1961). Conclusions: We observe a 2-fold increased risk of schizophrenia among those conceived or in early gestation at the height of famine with risk related to severity of famine conditions.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/59713
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 7.757
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 4.051
ISI Accession Number ID
Funding AgencyGrant Number
national 973 and 863 programs
Shanghai Municipal Commission of Science and Technology
US National Alliance for Research into Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders
The UK Royal Society
Natural National Science Foundation of China
Funding Information:

This work was supported by the national 973 and 863 programs, Shanghai Municipal Commission of Science and Technology, US National Alliance for Research into Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders, The UK Royal Society, and the Natural National Science Foundation of China. We thank Michaeline Bresnahan and Kim Fader, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, for help with manuscript preparation. Role of the sponsor: The sponsors of the study did not participate in the design or conduct of the study; nor in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; nor in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. Drs Ming-Qing Xu, Ezra Susser, David St. Clair, and Lin He had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design: He and St Clair; acquisition of data: Xu, Sun, Liu, Feng, Yu, Yang, and He; analysis and interpretation of data: Xu, Susser and St Clair; drafting of the manuscript: St. Clair and Xu; critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Xu, Susser, St Clair, and He; statistical analysis: Xu and Sham; obtained funding: He and St Clair; administrative, technical, or material support: Xu, Sun, Liu, Feng, Lan Yu, Yang, and He; study supervision: He and St Clair. Declaration: This work was conducted for purely scientific research purposes. Financial disclosures: None reported.

References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorXu, MQen_HK
dc.contributor.authorSun, WSen_HK
dc.contributor.authorLiu, BXen_HK
dc.contributor.authorFeng, GYen_HK
dc.contributor.authorYu, Len_HK
dc.contributor.authorYang, Len_HK
dc.contributor.authorHe, Gen_HK
dc.contributor.authorSham, Pen_HK
dc.contributor.authorSusser, Een_HK
dc.contributor.authorSt Clair, Den_HK
dc.contributor.authorHe, Len_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-05-31T03:55:55Z-
dc.date.available2010-05-31T03:55:55Z-
dc.date.issued2009en_HK
dc.identifier.citationSchizophrenia Bulletin, 2009, v. 35 n. 3, p. 568-576en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0586-7614en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/59713-
dc.description.abstractObjective: Evidence from the 1944-1995 Dutch Hunger Winter and the 1959-1961 Chinese famines suggests that those conceived or in early gestation during famines, have a 2-fold increased risk of developing schizophrenia in adult life. We tested the hypothesis in a second Chinese population and also determined whether risk differed between urban and rural areas. Method: The risk of schizophrenia was examined in Liuzhou prefecture of Guangxi autonomous region. Rates were compared among those conceived before, during, and after the famine years. Based on the decline in birth rates, we predicted that those born in 1960 and 1961 would have been exposed to the famine during conception or early gestation. All psychiatric case records in Liuzhou psychiatric hospital for the years 1971 through 2001 were examined and clinical/sociodemographic data extracted by psychiatrists blind to exposure status. Data on births and deaths in the famine years were also available, and cumulative mortality was estimated from later demographic surveys. Evidence of famine was verified, and results were adjusted for mortality. Relative risks (RRs) for schizophrenia were calculated for the region as a whole and for urban and rural areas separately. Results: Mortality-adjusted RR for schizophrenia was 1.5 (1960) and 2.05 (1961), respectively. However, the effect was exclusively from the rural areas RR = 1.68 (1960) and RR=2.25 (1961). Conclusions: We observe a 2-fold increased risk of schizophrenia among those conceived or in early gestation at the height of famine with risk related to severity of famine conditions.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherOxford University Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/en_HK
dc.relation.ispartofSchizophrenia Bulletinen_HK
dc.rightsSchizophrenia Bulletin. Copyright © Oxford University Press.en_HK
dc.subjectChinaen_HK
dc.subjectFamineen_HK
dc.subjectPrenatalen_HK
dc.subjectSchizophreniaen_HK
dc.titlePrenatal malnutrition and adult Schizophrenia: Further evidence from the 1959-1961 chinese famineen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0586-7614&volume=35 &issue=3&spage=568&epage=576&date=2009&atitle=Prenatal+Malnutrition+and+Adult+Schizophrenia:+Further+Evidence+From+the+1959-1961+Chinese+Famineen_HK
dc.identifier.emailSham, P: pcsham@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authoritySham, P=rp00459en_HK
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/schbul/sbn168en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid19155344-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-65349105489en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros158308en_HK
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-65349105489&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume35en_HK
dc.identifier.issue3en_HK
dc.identifier.spage568en_HK
dc.identifier.epage576en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000265277800011-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridXu, MQ=7403607565en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSun, WS=7404011568en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLiu, BX=10938810100en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridFeng, GY=7401641914en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridYu, L=8049697600en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridYang, L=7406275440en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHe, G=35313834400en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSham, P=34573429300en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSusser, E=35447070000en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSt Clair, D=35354078200en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHe, L=36080215400en_HK
dc.identifier.citeulike6728146-

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