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Article: The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells.

TitleThe effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells.
Authors
Issue Date2009
PublisherBioMed Central Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.jhoonline.org
Citation
Journal Of Hematology & Oncology, 2009, v. 2, p. 25 How to Cite?
AbstractNon-prescriptional use of medicinal herbs among cancer patients is common around the world. The alleged anti-cancer effects of most herbal extracts are mainly based on studies derived from in vitro or in vivo animal experiments. The current information suggests that these herbal extracts exert their biological effect either through cytotoxic or immunomodulatory mechanisms. One of the active compounds responsible for the immune effects of herbal products is in the form of complex polysaccharides known as beta-glucans. beta-glucans are ubiquitously found in both bacterial or fungal cell walls and have been implicated in the initiation of anti-microbial immune response. Based on in vitro studies, beta-glucans act on several immune receptors including Dectin-1, complement receptor (CR3) and TLR-2/6 and trigger a group of immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. As a consequence, both innate and adaptive response can be modulated by beta-glucans and they can also enhance opsonic and non-opsonic phagocytosis. In animal studies, after oral administration, the specific backbone 1-->3 linear beta-glycosidic chain of beta-glucans cannot be digested. Most beta-glucans enter the proximal small intestine and some are captured by the macrophages. They are internalized and fragmented within the cells, then transported by the macrophages to the marrow and endothelial reticular system. The small beta-glucans fragments are eventually released by the macrophages and taken up by other immune cells leading to various immune responses. However, beta-glucans of different sizes and branching patterns may have significantly variable immune potency. Careful selection of appropriate beta-glucans is essential if we wish to investigate the effects of beta-glucans clinically. So far, no good quality clinical trial data is available on assessing the effectiveness of purified beta-glucans among cancer patients. Future effort should direct at performing well-designed clinical trials to verify the actual clinical efficacy of beta-glucans or beta-glucans containing compounds.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/59537
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 6.263
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.245
PubMed Central ID
ISI Accession Number ID
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Edward Sai-Kim Hotung Paediatric Education Research Fund
URC/CRCG
Pau Kwong Wun Charitable Foundation
Funding Information:

We would like to thank Dr. Anita Chan (U. Alberta) for the English editing, Mr. Spencer Ng for the production of the graphic figures, the Edward Sai-Kim Hotung Paediatric Education & Research Fund, URC/CRCG Grants and Pau Kwong Wun Charitable Foundation for supporting the beta-glucan related works.

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorChan, GCen_HK
dc.contributor.authorChan, WKen_HK
dc.contributor.authorSze, DMen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-05-31T03:52:12Z-
dc.date.available2010-05-31T03:52:12Z-
dc.date.issued2009en_HK
dc.identifier.citationJournal Of Hematology & Oncology, 2009, v. 2, p. 25en_HK
dc.identifier.issn1756-8722en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/59537-
dc.description.abstractNon-prescriptional use of medicinal herbs among cancer patients is common around the world. The alleged anti-cancer effects of most herbal extracts are mainly based on studies derived from in vitro or in vivo animal experiments. The current information suggests that these herbal extracts exert their biological effect either through cytotoxic or immunomodulatory mechanisms. One of the active compounds responsible for the immune effects of herbal products is in the form of complex polysaccharides known as beta-glucans. beta-glucans are ubiquitously found in both bacterial or fungal cell walls and have been implicated in the initiation of anti-microbial immune response. Based on in vitro studies, beta-glucans act on several immune receptors including Dectin-1, complement receptor (CR3) and TLR-2/6 and trigger a group of immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. As a consequence, both innate and adaptive response can be modulated by beta-glucans and they can also enhance opsonic and non-opsonic phagocytosis. In animal studies, after oral administration, the specific backbone 1-->3 linear beta-glycosidic chain of beta-glucans cannot be digested. Most beta-glucans enter the proximal small intestine and some are captured by the macrophages. They are internalized and fragmented within the cells, then transported by the macrophages to the marrow and endothelial reticular system. The small beta-glucans fragments are eventually released by the macrophages and taken up by other immune cells leading to various immune responses. However, beta-glucans of different sizes and branching patterns may have significantly variable immune potency. Careful selection of appropriate beta-glucans is essential if we wish to investigate the effects of beta-glucans clinically. So far, no good quality clinical trial data is available on assessing the effectiveness of purified beta-glucans among cancer patients. Future effort should direct at performing well-designed clinical trials to verify the actual clinical efficacy of beta-glucans or beta-glucans containing compounds.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.jhoonline.orgen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of hematology & oncologyen_HK
dc.subject.meshAntineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols - therapeutic use-
dc.subject.meshBiological Products - administration and dosage-
dc.subject.meshImmune System - drug effects-
dc.subject.meshNeoplasms - drug therapy - pathology-
dc.subject.meshBeta-Glucans - administration and dosage - pharmacokinetics - pharmacology-
dc.titleThe effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells.en_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=1756-8722&volume=2&issue=1&spage=&epage=&date=2009&atitle=The+effects+of+beta-glucan+on+human+immune+and+cancer+cellsen_HK
dc.identifier.emailChan, GC:gcfchan@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityChan, GC=rp00431en_HK
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1756-8722-2-25-
dc.identifier.pmid19515245-
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC2704234-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-76949094767en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros163807en_HK
dc.identifier.volume2en_HK
dc.identifier.issue1-
dc.identifier.spage25en_HK
dc.identifier.epage25en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000272236700001-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChan, GC=16160154400en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChan, WK=35080149500en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSze, DM=7005428465en_HK

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