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Article: Chinese kang as a domestic heating system in rural northern China-A review
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TitleChinese kang as a domestic heating system in rural northern China-A review
 
AuthorsZhuang, Z1 2
Li, Y2
Chen, B1
Guo, J3
 
KeywordsChinese kang
Elevated kang
Home heating
Northern China
Rural indoor air quality
Thermal storage
 
Issue Date2009
 
PublisherElsevier SA. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild
 
CitationEnergy And Buildings, 2009, v. 41 n. 1, p. 111-119 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2008.07.013
 
AbstractThe Chinese kang is an ancient integrated home system for cooking, sleeping, domestic heating and ventilation. It is still widely used today in nearly 85% of rural homes in northern China. In 2004, there were 67 million kangs used by 175 million people. Existing kang designs are mostly based on the intuition and accumulation of craftsman experience. There is a trend that Chinese kang is gradually replaced by bed and coal-burning radiators, domestic heating stoves, etc. using commercial energy. As rural building heating constitutes 25% of total building energy consumption in China, we consider that the transition and new technologies for rural home heating in northern China is crucial for managing future building energy consumption in China. This paper reviews the basic heat transfer and airflow principles of Chinese kang, as well as describing the traditional grounded kang and the relatively new elevated kang. The thermal performance of the kang is shown by data from literature and field surveys. The future of Chinese kang and research needs is also briefly discussed. There is also a need for scientific study in addition to experience accumulation, to form basis for engineering design. Crown Copyright © 2008.
 
ISSN0378-7788
2013 Impact Factor: 2.465
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.978
 
DOIhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2008.07.013
 
ISI Accession Number IDWOS:000261483800013
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, ChinaHKU 7154/05E
NSFC Young Researcher Award50729803
Funding Information:

This work was supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. HKU 7154/05E) and NSFC Young Researcher Award (Project No. 50729803) on investigating energy consumption and indoor air quality in rural homes in Northern China. The work is a part of the International Energy Agency Annex 44 project on Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings.

 
ReferencesReferences in Scopus
 
GrantsNonlinear coupling of thermal mass and natural ventilation in buildings
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.authorZhuang, Z
 
dc.contributor.authorLi, Y
 
dc.contributor.authorChen, B
 
dc.contributor.authorGuo, J
 
dc.date.accessioned2010-05-31T03:41:38Z
 
dc.date.available2010-05-31T03:41:38Z
 
dc.date.issued2009
 
dc.description.abstractThe Chinese kang is an ancient integrated home system for cooking, sleeping, domestic heating and ventilation. It is still widely used today in nearly 85% of rural homes in northern China. In 2004, there were 67 million kangs used by 175 million people. Existing kang designs are mostly based on the intuition and accumulation of craftsman experience. There is a trend that Chinese kang is gradually replaced by bed and coal-burning radiators, domestic heating stoves, etc. using commercial energy. As rural building heating constitutes 25% of total building energy consumption in China, we consider that the transition and new technologies for rural home heating in northern China is crucial for managing future building energy consumption in China. This paper reviews the basic heat transfer and airflow principles of Chinese kang, as well as describing the traditional grounded kang and the relatively new elevated kang. The thermal performance of the kang is shown by data from literature and field surveys. The future of Chinese kang and research needs is also briefly discussed. There is also a need for scientific study in addition to experience accumulation, to form basis for engineering design. Crown Copyright © 2008.
 
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext
 
dc.identifier.citationEnergy And Buildings, 2009, v. 41 n. 1, p. 111-119 [How to Cite?]
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2008.07.013
 
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2008.07.013
 
dc.identifier.epage119
 
dc.identifier.hkuros161301
 
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000261483800013
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, ChinaHKU 7154/05E
NSFC Young Researcher Award50729803
Funding Information:

This work was supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. HKU 7154/05E) and NSFC Young Researcher Award (Project No. 50729803) on investigating energy consumption and indoor air quality in rural homes in Northern China. The work is a part of the International Energy Agency Annex 44 project on Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings.

 
dc.identifier.issn0378-7788
2013 Impact Factor: 2.465
2013 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.978
 
dc.identifier.issue1
 
dc.identifier.openurl
 
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-55649117739
 
dc.identifier.spage111
 
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/59026
 
dc.identifier.volume41
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherElsevier SA. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild
 
dc.publisher.placeSwitzerland
 
dc.relation.ispartofEnergy and Buildings
 
dc.relation.projectNonlinear coupling of thermal mass and natural ventilation in buildings
 
dc.relation.referencesReferences in Scopus
 
dc.subjectChinese kang
 
dc.subjectElevated kang
 
dc.subjectHome heating
 
dc.subjectNorthern China
 
dc.subjectRural indoor air quality
 
dc.subjectThermal storage
 
dc.titleChinese kang as a domestic heating system in rural northern China-A review
 
dc.typeArticle
 
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Author Affiliations
  1. Dalian University of Technology
  2. The University of Hong Kong
  3. Rural Energy Office