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Article: Mid-ocean exchange of container vessel ballast water. 1: seasonal factors affecting the transport of harmful diatoms and dinoflagellates

TitleMid-ocean exchange of container vessel ballast water. 1: seasonal factors affecting the transport of harmful diatoms and dinoflagellates
Authors
KeywordsBallast water
Mid-ocean exchange
Harmful species
Diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Issue Date1999
PublisherInter-Research. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.int-res.com/journals/meps/index.html
Citation
Marine Ecology - Progress Series, 1999, v. 176, p. 243-252 How to Cite?
AbstractOur study of 34 ships (20 direct from Oakland, California, USA, and 14 more after open ocean exchange) is the first year-long seasonal study to assess the effectiveness of open ocean exchange of ballast waters. The highest number of harmful species occurred in April and February when water temperatures in Hong Kong (China) and Oakland were low. The periods with the greatest species richness of harmful species did not correspond to periods with the highest abundance of harmful species. The latter occurred in early September and mid-August, when Skeletonema costatum (14000 cells l-1) dominated the plankton in the ballast water from Oakland Harbor. From April 1996 to April 1997, ballast water samples were collected from 34 Orient Overseas Container Lines Ltd ships which took 16 d to travel from Oakland to Hong Kong. Of the 34 ships, 14 exchanged their Oakland Harbor ballast water for open ocean water (referred to here as reballasting). Open ocean was defined as waters with a depth >2000 m. Once reballasting was completed, the contents of ballast tank no. 1 were not discharged until the ship reached Hong Kong. Six harmful diatoms and 9 harmful dinoflagellate species were observed in the ballast water from Oakland Harbor. These included the diatom Chaetoceros concavicornis and the PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning) toxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Of the 15 harmful species found in the Oakland Harbor ballast water, 8 (53%) were also found in the ballast water of ships that had exchanged coastal for open ocean ballast water. The abundance of harmful species in open ocean ballast water was 87% lower than those in the ballast water from Oakland Harbor. The reason that mid-ocean exchange failed to eliminate all harmful diatoms and dinoflagellates was probably because the ballast tank was never completely emptied before it was reballasted with mid-ocean water.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/57256
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 2.361
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.554
ISI Accession Number ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorZhang, FZen_HK
dc.contributor.authorDickman, MDen_HK
dc.date.accessioned2010-04-12T01:31:01Z-
dc.date.available2010-04-12T01:31:01Z-
dc.date.issued1999en_HK
dc.identifier.citationMarine Ecology - Progress Series, 1999, v. 176, p. 243-252en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0171-8630en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/57256-
dc.description.abstractOur study of 34 ships (20 direct from Oakland, California, USA, and 14 more after open ocean exchange) is the first year-long seasonal study to assess the effectiveness of open ocean exchange of ballast waters. The highest number of harmful species occurred in April and February when water temperatures in Hong Kong (China) and Oakland were low. The periods with the greatest species richness of harmful species did not correspond to periods with the highest abundance of harmful species. The latter occurred in early September and mid-August, when Skeletonema costatum (14000 cells l-1) dominated the plankton in the ballast water from Oakland Harbor. From April 1996 to April 1997, ballast water samples were collected from 34 Orient Overseas Container Lines Ltd ships which took 16 d to travel from Oakland to Hong Kong. Of the 34 ships, 14 exchanged their Oakland Harbor ballast water for open ocean water (referred to here as reballasting). Open ocean was defined as waters with a depth >2000 m. Once reballasting was completed, the contents of ballast tank no. 1 were not discharged until the ship reached Hong Kong. Six harmful diatoms and 9 harmful dinoflagellate species were observed in the ballast water from Oakland Harbor. These included the diatom Chaetoceros concavicornis and the PSP (paralytic shellfish poisoning) toxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. Of the 15 harmful species found in the Oakland Harbor ballast water, 8 (53%) were also found in the ballast water of ships that had exchanged coastal for open ocean ballast water. The abundance of harmful species in open ocean ballast water was 87% lower than those in the ballast water from Oakland Harbor. The reason that mid-ocean exchange failed to eliminate all harmful diatoms and dinoflagellates was probably because the ballast tank was never completely emptied before it was reballasted with mid-ocean water.en_HK
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherInter-Research. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.int-res.com/journals/meps/index.htmlen_HK
dc.rightsMarine Ecology - Progress Series. Copyright © Inter-Research.en_HK
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subjectBallast wateren_HK
dc.subjectMid-ocean exchangeen_HK
dc.subjectHarmful speciesen_HK
dc.subjectDiatomsen_HK
dc.subjectDinoflagellatesen_HK
dc.titleMid-ocean exchange of container vessel ballast water. 1: seasonal factors affecting the transport of harmful diatoms and dinoflagellatesen_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0171-8630&volume=176&spage=243&epage=252&date=1999&atitle=Mid-ocean+exchange+of+container+vessel+ballast+water.+1:+seasonal+factors+affecting+the+transport+of+harmful+diatoms+and+dinoflagellatesen_HK
dc.identifier.emailDickman, MD: dickman@hkusua.hku.hken_HK
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_versionen_HK
dc.identifier.doi10.3354/meps176243en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros43698-
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000078918200021-

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