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Article: Benefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing?

TitleBenefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing?
Authors
KeywordsExplicit
Golf putting
Implicit
Knowledge
Motor learning
Issue Date2006
PublisherTaylor & Francis Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/02640414.asp
Citation
Journal Of Sports Sciences, 2006, v. 24 n. 1, p. 89-99 How to Cite?
AbstractWe conducted two experiments to assess the effect attentional focus has on learning a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under secondary task loading. Participants in Experiment 1 learnt a golf putting task (300 practice trials) with a single instruction to either focus on their hands (internal focus) or the movement of the putter (external focus). No group differences were evident during learning or retention. Differences between the groups were only apparent under secondary task load; the external group's performance remained robust, while the internal group suffered a drop in performance. Verbal protocols demonstrated that the internal group accumulated significantly more internal knowledge and more task-relevant knowledge in general than the external group. Experiment 2 was designed to establish whether greater internal focus knowledge or greater explicit rule build up in general was responsible for performance breakdown. Two groups were presented with a set of six internal or external rules. Again, no performance differences were found during learning or retention. During the secondary task, both groups experienced performance deterioration. It was concluded that accumulation of explicit rules to guide performance was responsible for the internal group's breakdown in performance under secondary task loading and may be responsible for some of the performance differences reported previously. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/48694
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 2.142
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.204
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorPoolton, JMen_HK
dc.contributor.authorMaxwell, JPen_HK
dc.contributor.authorMasters, RSWen_HK
dc.contributor.authorRaab, Men_HK
dc.date.accessioned2008-05-22T04:21:39Z-
dc.date.available2008-05-22T04:21:39Z-
dc.date.issued2006en_HK
dc.identifier.citationJournal Of Sports Sciences, 2006, v. 24 n. 1, p. 89-99en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0264-0414en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/48694-
dc.description.abstractWe conducted two experiments to assess the effect attentional focus has on learning a complex motor skill and subsequent performance under secondary task loading. Participants in Experiment 1 learnt a golf putting task (300 practice trials) with a single instruction to either focus on their hands (internal focus) or the movement of the putter (external focus). No group differences were evident during learning or retention. Differences between the groups were only apparent under secondary task load; the external group's performance remained robust, while the internal group suffered a drop in performance. Verbal protocols demonstrated that the internal group accumulated significantly more internal knowledge and more task-relevant knowledge in general than the external group. Experiment 2 was designed to establish whether greater internal focus knowledge or greater explicit rule build up in general was responsible for performance breakdown. Two groups were presented with a set of six internal or external rules. Again, no performance differences were found during learning or retention. During the secondary task, both groups experienced performance deterioration. It was concluded that accumulation of explicit rules to guide performance was responsible for the internal group's breakdown in performance under secondary task loading and may be responsible for some of the performance differences reported previously. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.en_HK
dc.format.extent107966 bytes-
dc.format.extent28160 bytes-
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf-
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/msword-
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherTaylor & Francis Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/02640414.aspen_HK
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Sports Sciencesen_HK
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subjectExpliciten_HK
dc.subjectGolf puttingen_HK
dc.subjectImpliciten_HK
dc.subjectKnowledgeen_HK
dc.subjectMotor learningen_HK
dc.titleBenefits of an external focus of attention: Common coding or conscious processing?en_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0264-0414&volume=24&issue=1&spage=89&epage=99&date=2006&atitle=Benefits+of+an+external+focus+of+attention:+common+coding+or+conscious+processing?en_HK
dc.identifier.emailPoolton, JM: jamiep@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailMasters, RSW: mastersr@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityPoolton, JM=rp00949en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityMasters, RSW=rp00935en_HK
dc.description.naturepostprinten_HK
dc.identifier.doi10.1080/02640410500130854en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid16368617-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-31344460785en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros120926-
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-31344460785&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume24en_HK
dc.identifier.issue1en_HK
dc.identifier.spage89en_HK
dc.identifier.epage99en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000235430500010-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridPoolton, JM=8921750800en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMaxwell, JP=7201610565en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMasters, RSW=7102880488en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridRaab, M=33167708900en_HK

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