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Article: Mortality and smoking in Hong Kong: Case-control study of all adult deaths in 1998

TitleMortality and smoking in Hong Kong: Case-control study of all adult deaths in 1998
Authors
Issue Date2001
PublisherBMJ Publishing Group. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.bmj.com/
Citation
British Medical Journal, 2001, v. 323 n. 7309, p. 361-362 How to Cite?
AbstractObjective: To assess the mortality currently associated with smoking in Hong Kong, and, since cigarette consumption reached its peak 20 years earlier in Hong Kong than in mainland China, to predict mortality in China 20 years hence. Design: Case-control study. Past smoking habits of all Chinese adults in Hong Kong who died in 1998 (cases) were sought from those registering the death. Setting: All the death registries in Hong Kong. Participants: 27 507 dead cases (81% of all registered deaths) and 13 054 live controls aged ≥35 years. Main outcome measures: Mortality from all causes and from specific causes. Results: In men aged 35-69 the adjusted risk ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) comparing smokers with non-smokers were 1.92 (1.70 to 2.16) for all deaths, 2.22 (1.94 to 2.55) for neoplastic deaths, 2.60 (2.10 to 3.21) for respiratory deaths (including tuberculosis, risk ratio 2.54), and 1.68 (1.43 to 1.97) for vascular deaths (each P < 0.0001). In women aged 35-69 the corresponding risk ratios were 1.62 (1.40 to 1.88) for all deaths, 1.60 (1.33 to 1.93) for neoplastic deaths, 3.13 (2.21 to 4.44) for respiratory deaths, and 1.55 (1.20 to 1.99) for vascular deaths (each P < 0.001). If these associations with smoking are largely or wholly causal then, among all registered deaths at ages 35-69 in 1998, tobacco caused about 33% (2534/7588) of all male deaths and 5% (169/3341) of all female deaths (hence 25% of all deaths at these ages). At older ages tobacco seemed to be the cause of 15% (3017/20 420) of all deaths. Conclusions: Among middle aged men the proportion of deaths caused by smoking is more than twice as big in Hong Kong now (33%) as in mainland China 10 years earlier. This supports predictions of a large increase in tobacco attributable mortality in China as a whole.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/43576
ISSN
2008 Impact Factor: 12.827
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.567
PubMed Central ID
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLam, THen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHo, SYen_HK
dc.contributor.authorHedley, AJen_HK
dc.contributor.authorMak, KHen_HK
dc.contributor.authorPeto, Ren_HK
dc.date.accessioned2007-03-23T04:49:24Z-
dc.date.available2007-03-23T04:49:24Z-
dc.date.issued2001en_HK
dc.identifier.citationBritish Medical Journal, 2001, v. 323 n. 7309, p. 361-362en_HK
dc.identifier.issn0959-8146en_HK
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/43576-
dc.description.abstractObjective: To assess the mortality currently associated with smoking in Hong Kong, and, since cigarette consumption reached its peak 20 years earlier in Hong Kong than in mainland China, to predict mortality in China 20 years hence. Design: Case-control study. Past smoking habits of all Chinese adults in Hong Kong who died in 1998 (cases) were sought from those registering the death. Setting: All the death registries in Hong Kong. Participants: 27 507 dead cases (81% of all registered deaths) and 13 054 live controls aged ≥35 years. Main outcome measures: Mortality from all causes and from specific causes. Results: In men aged 35-69 the adjusted risk ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) comparing smokers with non-smokers were 1.92 (1.70 to 2.16) for all deaths, 2.22 (1.94 to 2.55) for neoplastic deaths, 2.60 (2.10 to 3.21) for respiratory deaths (including tuberculosis, risk ratio 2.54), and 1.68 (1.43 to 1.97) for vascular deaths (each P < 0.0001). In women aged 35-69 the corresponding risk ratios were 1.62 (1.40 to 1.88) for all deaths, 1.60 (1.33 to 1.93) for neoplastic deaths, 3.13 (2.21 to 4.44) for respiratory deaths, and 1.55 (1.20 to 1.99) for vascular deaths (each P < 0.001). If these associations with smoking are largely or wholly causal then, among all registered deaths at ages 35-69 in 1998, tobacco caused about 33% (2534/7588) of all male deaths and 5% (169/3341) of all female deaths (hence 25% of all deaths at these ages). At older ages tobacco seemed to be the cause of 15% (3017/20 420) of all deaths. Conclusions: Among middle aged men the proportion of deaths caused by smoking is more than twice as big in Hong Kong now (33%) as in mainland China 10 years earlier. This supports predictions of a large increase in tobacco attributable mortality in China as a whole.en_HK
dc.format.extent398552 bytes-
dc.format.extent25600 bytes-
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf-
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/msword-
dc.languageengen_HK
dc.publisherBMJ Publishing Group. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.bmj.com/en_HK
dc.relation.ispartofBritish Medical Journalen_HK
dc.rightsBMJ. Copyright © B M J Publishing Group.en_HK
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subject.meshSmoking - mortality - trendsen_HK
dc.subject.meshTuberculosis, pulmonary - mortalityen_HK
dc.subject.meshLung diseases, obstructive - mortalityen_HK
dc.subject.meshLung neoplasms - mortalityen_HK
dc.subject.meshSex distributionen_HK
dc.titleMortality and smoking in Hong Kong: Case-control study of all adult deaths in 1998en_HK
dc.typeArticleen_HK
dc.identifier.openurlhttp://library.hku.hk:4550/resserv?sid=HKU:IR&issn=0959-535X&volume=323&issue=7309&spage=361: 1&epage=6&date=2001&atitle=Mortality+and+smoking+in+Hong+Kong:+case-control+study+of+all+adult+deaths+in+1998en_HK
dc.identifier.emailLam, TH:hrmrlth@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailHo, SY:syho@hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.emailHedley, AJ:hrmrajh@hkucc.hku.hken_HK
dc.identifier.authorityLam, TH=rp00326en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityHo, SY=rp00427en_HK
dc.identifier.authorityHedley, AJ=rp00357en_HK
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_versionen_HK
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/bmj.323.7309.361en_HK
dc.identifier.pmid11509422-
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC37393-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0035908776en_HK
dc.identifier.hkuros65079-
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-0035908776&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_HK
dc.identifier.volume323en_HK
dc.identifier.issue7309en_HK
dc.identifier.spage361en_HK
dc.identifier.epage362en_HK
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000170581400013-
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLam, TH=7202522876en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHo, SY=7403716884en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHedley, AJ=7102584095en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMak, KH=8623141300en_HK
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridPeto, R=38061875000en_HK

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