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Conference Paper: Are blood lead levels in the United States still declining? The United States National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 1999-2016

TitleAre blood lead levels in the United States still declining? The United States National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 1999-2016
Authors
Issue Date2019
PublisherHong Kong Academy of Medicine Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.hkmj.org/
Citation
24th Medical Research Conference, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 19 January 2019. In Hong Kong Medical Journal, 2019, v. 25 n. 1, Suppl. 1, p. 30 How to Cite?
AbstractIntroduction: Lead is a well-documented environmental toxin without a safe blood level. The current upper reference blood lead level (BLL), 5 μg/dL, came from the 97.5th percentile in children aged 1 to 5 years in the US National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. We studied BLL, as reported in NHANES, to estimate the proportion of children with BLL ≥5 μg/dL. Methods: We analysed 68 877 participants with BLL measurements in NHANES 1999-2016 using SPSS (Window version 25.0; IBM Corp, Armonk [NY], US). Results: In NHANES 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016, the mean BLLs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.66 (1.63-1.68), 1.46 (1.44-1.47), 1.43 (1.42-1.44), 1.29 (1.28-1.31), 1.27 (1.26-1.29), 1.12 (1.11-1.13), 0.97 (0.96-0.99), 0.86 (0.85-0.87), and 0.82 (0.81-0.83) μg/dL, respectively (P<0.001). The decline was significant (P<0.05) after stratification by age, sex, ethnicity, and pregnancy status. The estimated proportions (95% CIs) of children aged 1 to 5 years with elevated BLL in 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016 were 9.7% (7.2%-12.8%), 7.4% (6.1%-9.1%), 5.3% (4.3%-6.4%), 2.9% (2.4%-3.6%), 3.1% (2.6%-3.8%), 2.1% (1.7%-2.7%), 2.0% (1.3%-3.0%), 0.5% (0.4%-0.7%), and 1.3% (0.8%-2.3%), respectively (P<0.001). The estimated 97.5th percentile of BLL in children aged 1-5 years, was 3.71 μg/dL in NHANES 2015-2016. Conclusion: In the overall US population BLLs continue to decline. However, in young children aged 1 to 5 years in 2015-2016, BLLs did not decline and appeared to increase. Data for 2017-2018 are needed to verify if this is a trend. Our data suggest that monitoring BLLs in the population is as necessary as ever and that efforts to reduce environmental exposure to lead must not be relaxed.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/268243
ISSN
2017 Impact Factor: 1.226
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.279

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLui, KWK-
dc.contributor.authorTsoi, MF-
dc.contributor.authorCheung, TT-
dc.contributor.authorCheung, CL-
dc.contributor.authorCheung, BMY-
dc.date.accessioned2019-03-18T04:21:35Z-
dc.date.available2019-03-18T04:21:35Z-
dc.date.issued2019-
dc.identifier.citation24th Medical Research Conference, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 19 January 2019. In Hong Kong Medical Journal, 2019, v. 25 n. 1, Suppl. 1, p. 30-
dc.identifier.issn1024-2708-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/268243-
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: Lead is a well-documented environmental toxin without a safe blood level. The current upper reference blood lead level (BLL), 5 μg/dL, came from the 97.5th percentile in children aged 1 to 5 years in the US National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. We studied BLL, as reported in NHANES, to estimate the proportion of children with BLL ≥5 μg/dL. Methods: We analysed 68 877 participants with BLL measurements in NHANES 1999-2016 using SPSS (Window version 25.0; IBM Corp, Armonk [NY], US). Results: In NHANES 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016, the mean BLLs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.66 (1.63-1.68), 1.46 (1.44-1.47), 1.43 (1.42-1.44), 1.29 (1.28-1.31), 1.27 (1.26-1.29), 1.12 (1.11-1.13), 0.97 (0.96-0.99), 0.86 (0.85-0.87), and 0.82 (0.81-0.83) μg/dL, respectively (P<0.001). The decline was significant (P<0.05) after stratification by age, sex, ethnicity, and pregnancy status. The estimated proportions (95% CIs) of children aged 1 to 5 years with elevated BLL in 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016 were 9.7% (7.2%-12.8%), 7.4% (6.1%-9.1%), 5.3% (4.3%-6.4%), 2.9% (2.4%-3.6%), 3.1% (2.6%-3.8%), 2.1% (1.7%-2.7%), 2.0% (1.3%-3.0%), 0.5% (0.4%-0.7%), and 1.3% (0.8%-2.3%), respectively (P<0.001). The estimated 97.5th percentile of BLL in children aged 1-5 years, was 3.71 μg/dL in NHANES 2015-2016. Conclusion: In the overall US population BLLs continue to decline. However, in young children aged 1 to 5 years in 2015-2016, BLLs did not decline and appeared to increase. Data for 2017-2018 are needed to verify if this is a trend. Our data suggest that monitoring BLLs in the population is as necessary as ever and that efforts to reduce environmental exposure to lead must not be relaxed.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherHong Kong Academy of Medicine Press. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.hkmj.org/-
dc.relation.ispartofHong Kong Medical Journal-
dc.relation.ispartof24th Medical Research Conference, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong-
dc.rightsHong Kong Medical Journal. Copyright © Hong Kong Academy of Medicine Press.-
dc.titleAre blood lead levels in the United States still declining? The United States National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 1999-2016-
dc.typeConference_Paper-
dc.identifier.emailCheung, TT: tcheungt@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailCheung, CL: lung1212@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailCheung, BMY: mycheung@hkucc.hku.hk-
dc.identifier.authorityCheung, TT=rp01682-
dc.identifier.authorityCheung, CL=rp01749-
dc.identifier.authorityCheung, BMY=rp01321-
dc.identifier.hkuros297238-
dc.identifier.volume25-
dc.identifier.issue1, Suppl. 1-
dc.identifier.spage30-
dc.identifier.epage30-
dc.publisher.placeHong Kong-

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