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postgraduate thesis: Return migration of the second-generation Hong Kong Chinese immigrants : decision-making, psychological re-adaptation, and re-emigration Plan

TitleReturn migration of the second-generation Hong Kong Chinese immigrants : decision-making, psychological re-adaptation, and re-emigration Plan
Authors
Advisors
Issue Date2017
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Li, J. [李佳]. (2017). Return migration of the second-generation Hong Kong Chinese immigrants : decision-making, psychological re-adaptation, and re-emigration Plan. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR.
AbstractBackground and research objectives: Return migration has been increasingly common across the world. It has also become an important policy agenda of some East Asian countries as an important source of labor forces. Hong Kong (HK) has received a large number of return migrants. Return migration takes place not only among first-generation immigrants but also their children who were either born or raised in the destination countries, the so-called “the second-generation immigrants”. A recent policy encourages more second-generation returnees to relocate to HK. Integrating economic, socio-cultural and psychological perspectives on return migration, this study aims to understand the reasons of second-generation Hong Kong immigrants’ return, their psychological re-adaptation, and future re-emigration plans. Methodology: A mixed-method approach was employed in this study to answer research questions. Sixteen second-generation returnees to HK aged 18 and over were recruited through snowball sampling in order to participate in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Three hundred twenty-one respondents were collected through convenience sampling and were invited to participate by completing an online survey. The vast majority of the participants have received at least bachelor’s degree and work in professional job positions. Results: Qualitative data shows how return migration is largely shaped by the sustaining transnationalism that they inherited from their first-generation immigrant parents. Their post-return experiences are mostly positive, characterized by privileges experienced due to their Western upbringing and dual affiliation with both the West and the East. Returnees plan to pass these privileges down to the next generation. Difficulties are more likely to occur when they deal with the local environment. Post-return experiences vary among participants. Relocation to HK for most participants is temporary; return or re-emigration can be flexibly conducted to utilize transnational capital to achieve life goals in different life stages. Quantitative studies complement the qualitative findings by further and more closely looking at the diversity of this population and examining the influential factors of returnees’ psychological re-adaptation and future mobility plans. Returnees back for mainly economic or non-economic reasons have different types of pre-return and post-return experiences. Generally speaking, economic returnees tend to integrate better into their former host country and are more satisfied with their post-return life in HK than their non-economic counterparts. Contrary to most cross-cultural literature, a higher motivation to acculturate into HK is negatively related to psychological re-adaptation. Having a HK-favored or intercultural identity is related to higher life satisfaction. While psychological re-adaptation in HK has no significant influence on whether the return is permanent or temporary, social networks in HK and identification with the former host country can significantly influence returnees’ re-emigration plan. Implications: This explanatory study is a contribution to the existing very small body of literature on return migration of second-generation immigrants. Despite some limitations, this study contributes to the application of migration and cross-cultural theories in this specific population. It calls for cultural-sensitive social work practice and education to address the needs of different racial and cultural groups. It indicates the development of diasporic policies of HK and other East Asian nations.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectChina - Return migration - Hong Kong
Dept/ProgramSocial Work and Social Administration
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/250762

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorJordan, LP-
dc.contributor.advisorTsang, SKM-
dc.contributor.authorLi, Jia-
dc.contributor.author李佳-
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-26T01:59:29Z-
dc.date.available2018-01-26T01:59:29Z-
dc.date.issued2017-
dc.identifier.citationLi, J. [李佳]. (2017). Return migration of the second-generation Hong Kong Chinese immigrants : decision-making, psychological re-adaptation, and re-emigration Plan. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR.-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/250762-
dc.description.abstractBackground and research objectives: Return migration has been increasingly common across the world. It has also become an important policy agenda of some East Asian countries as an important source of labor forces. Hong Kong (HK) has received a large number of return migrants. Return migration takes place not only among first-generation immigrants but also their children who were either born or raised in the destination countries, the so-called “the second-generation immigrants”. A recent policy encourages more second-generation returnees to relocate to HK. Integrating economic, socio-cultural and psychological perspectives on return migration, this study aims to understand the reasons of second-generation Hong Kong immigrants’ return, their psychological re-adaptation, and future re-emigration plans. Methodology: A mixed-method approach was employed in this study to answer research questions. Sixteen second-generation returnees to HK aged 18 and over were recruited through snowball sampling in order to participate in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Three hundred twenty-one respondents were collected through convenience sampling and were invited to participate by completing an online survey. The vast majority of the participants have received at least bachelor’s degree and work in professional job positions. Results: Qualitative data shows how return migration is largely shaped by the sustaining transnationalism that they inherited from their first-generation immigrant parents. Their post-return experiences are mostly positive, characterized by privileges experienced due to their Western upbringing and dual affiliation with both the West and the East. Returnees plan to pass these privileges down to the next generation. Difficulties are more likely to occur when they deal with the local environment. Post-return experiences vary among participants. Relocation to HK for most participants is temporary; return or re-emigration can be flexibly conducted to utilize transnational capital to achieve life goals in different life stages. Quantitative studies complement the qualitative findings by further and more closely looking at the diversity of this population and examining the influential factors of returnees’ psychological re-adaptation and future mobility plans. Returnees back for mainly economic or non-economic reasons have different types of pre-return and post-return experiences. Generally speaking, economic returnees tend to integrate better into their former host country and are more satisfied with their post-return life in HK than their non-economic counterparts. Contrary to most cross-cultural literature, a higher motivation to acculturate into HK is negatively related to psychological re-adaptation. Having a HK-favored or intercultural identity is related to higher life satisfaction. While psychological re-adaptation in HK has no significant influence on whether the return is permanent or temporary, social networks in HK and identification with the former host country can significantly influence returnees’ re-emigration plan. Implications: This explanatory study is a contribution to the existing very small body of literature on return migration of second-generation immigrants. Despite some limitations, this study contributes to the application of migration and cross-cultural theories in this specific population. It calls for cultural-sensitive social work practice and education to address the needs of different racial and cultural groups. It indicates the development of diasporic policies of HK and other East Asian nations.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.-
dc.subject.lcshChina - Return migration - Hong Kong-
dc.titleReturn migration of the second-generation Hong Kong Chinese immigrants : decision-making, psychological re-adaptation, and re-emigration Plan-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineSocial Work and Social Administration-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.date.hkucongregation2017-
dc.identifier.mmsid991043979528303414-

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