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Article: Goal-Setting Paradoxes? Trade-Offs Between Working Hard and Working Smart: The United States Versus China

TitleGoal-Setting Paradoxes? Trade-Offs Between Working Hard and Working Smart: The United States Versus China
Authors
KeywordsGoal difficulty
Goal setting
Goal specificity
Sales planning
Working hard
Working smart
Adaptive selling
Issue Date2004
Citation
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 2004, v. 32, n. 2, p. 188-202 How to Cite?
AbstractThis article proposes a model of the impact of goal difficulty and goal specificity on selling behaviors (selling effort, adaptive selling, and sales planning) and hence sales and behavior performance. The model suggests that goal-setting factors may have opposing effects on different sales behaviors. The empirical findings suggest that goal difficulty positively influences selling effort while negatively influencing adaptive selling behaviors. The results show that goal difficulty and goal specificity both have opposite effects on the two dimensions of working smart: adaptive selling and sales planning. The findings support the need for sales managers to account for the cultural context of the salesperson when determining optimal goal-setting strategies. With data collected from salespeople in the United States and China, the cross-cultural differences regarding the effects of goal-setting factors are also proposed and empirically supported.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/230735
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 3.744
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 3.861

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorFang, Eric-
dc.contributor.authorPalmatier, Robert W.-
dc.contributor.authorEvans, Kenneth R.-
dc.date.accessioned2016-09-01T06:06:40Z-
dc.date.available2016-09-01T06:06:40Z-
dc.date.issued2004-
dc.identifier.citationJournal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 2004, v. 32, n. 2, p. 188-202-
dc.identifier.issn0092-0703-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/230735-
dc.description.abstractThis article proposes a model of the impact of goal difficulty and goal specificity on selling behaviors (selling effort, adaptive selling, and sales planning) and hence sales and behavior performance. The model suggests that goal-setting factors may have opposing effects on different sales behaviors. The empirical findings suggest that goal difficulty positively influences selling effort while negatively influencing adaptive selling behaviors. The results show that goal difficulty and goal specificity both have opposite effects on the two dimensions of working smart: adaptive selling and sales planning. The findings support the need for sales managers to account for the cultural context of the salesperson when determining optimal goal-setting strategies. With data collected from salespeople in the United States and China, the cross-cultural differences regarding the effects of goal-setting factors are also proposed and empirically supported.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of the Academy of Marketing Science-
dc.subjectGoal difficulty-
dc.subjectGoal setting-
dc.subjectGoal specificity-
dc.subjectSales planning-
dc.subjectWorking hard-
dc.subjectWorking smart-
dc.subjectAdaptive selling-
dc.titleGoal-Setting Paradoxes? Trade-Offs Between Working Hard and Working Smart: The United States Versus China-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.description.natureLink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-1842606459-
dc.identifier.volume32-
dc.identifier.issue2-
dc.identifier.spage188-
dc.identifier.epage202-

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