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Article: An attenuation model for distant earthquakes

TitleAn attenuation model for distant earthquakes
Authors
KeywordsAttenuation
Computer simulation
Seismic waves
Seismology
Structural analysis
Issue Date2004
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/1922
Citation
Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 2004, v. 33 n. 2, p. 183-210 How to Cite?
AbstractLarge magnitude earthquakes generated at source–site distances exceeding 100km are typified by low-frequency (long-period) seismic waves. Such induced ground shaking can be disproportionately destructive due to its high displacement, and possibly high velocity, shaking characteristics. Distant earthquakes represent a potentially significant safety hazard in certain low and moderate seismic regions where seismic activity is governed by major distant sources as opposed to nearby (regional) background sources. Examples are parts of the Indian sub-continent, Eastern China and Indo-China. The majority of ground motion attenuation relationships currently available for applications in active seismic regions may not be suitable for handling long-distance attenuation, since the significance of distant earthquakes is mainly confined to certain low to moderate seismicity regions. Thus, the effects of distant earthquakes are often not accurately represented by conventional empirical models which were typically developed from curve-fitting earthquake strong-motion data from active seismic regions. Numerous well-known existing attenuation relationships are evaluated in this paper, to highlight their limitations in long-distance applications. In contrast, basic seismological parameters such as the Quality factor (Q-factor) could provide a far more accurate representation for the distant attenuation behaviour of a region, but such information is seldom used by engineers in any direct manner. The aim of this paper is to develop a set of relationships that provide a convenient link between the seismological Q-factor (amongst other factors) and response spectrum attenuation. The use of Q as an input parameter to the proposed model enables valuable local seismological information to be incorporated directly into response spectrum predictions. The application of this new modelling approach is demonstrated by examples based on the Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan and South China), Gujarat earthquake (Northwest India), Nisqually earthquake (region surrounding Seattle) and Sumatran-fault earthquake (recorded in Singapore). Field recordings have been obtained from these events for comparison with the proposed model. The accuracy of the stochastic simulations and the regression analysis have been confirmed by comparisons between the model calculations and the actual field observations. It is emphasized that obtaining representative estimates for Q for input into the model is equally important.Thus, this paper forms part of the long-term objective of the authors to develop more effective communications across the engineering and seismological disciplines. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/222961
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 2.127
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 2.921

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorChandler, A-
dc.contributor.authorLam, N-
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-17T02:45:27Z-
dc.date.available2016-02-17T02:45:27Z-
dc.date.issued2004-
dc.identifier.citationEarthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 2004, v. 33 n. 2, p. 183-210-
dc.identifier.issn0098-8847-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/222961-
dc.description.abstractLarge magnitude earthquakes generated at source–site distances exceeding 100km are typified by low-frequency (long-period) seismic waves. Such induced ground shaking can be disproportionately destructive due to its high displacement, and possibly high velocity, shaking characteristics. Distant earthquakes represent a potentially significant safety hazard in certain low and moderate seismic regions where seismic activity is governed by major distant sources as opposed to nearby (regional) background sources. Examples are parts of the Indian sub-continent, Eastern China and Indo-China. The majority of ground motion attenuation relationships currently available for applications in active seismic regions may not be suitable for handling long-distance attenuation, since the significance of distant earthquakes is mainly confined to certain low to moderate seismicity regions. Thus, the effects of distant earthquakes are often not accurately represented by conventional empirical models which were typically developed from curve-fitting earthquake strong-motion data from active seismic regions. Numerous well-known existing attenuation relationships are evaluated in this paper, to highlight their limitations in long-distance applications. In contrast, basic seismological parameters such as the Quality factor (Q-factor) could provide a far more accurate representation for the distant attenuation behaviour of a region, but such information is seldom used by engineers in any direct manner. The aim of this paper is to develop a set of relationships that provide a convenient link between the seismological Q-factor (amongst other factors) and response spectrum attenuation. The use of Q as an input parameter to the proposed model enables valuable local seismological information to be incorporated directly into response spectrum predictions. The application of this new modelling approach is demonstrated by examples based on the Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan and South China), Gujarat earthquake (Northwest India), Nisqually earthquake (region surrounding Seattle) and Sumatran-fault earthquake (recorded in Singapore). Field recordings have been obtained from these events for comparison with the proposed model. The accuracy of the stochastic simulations and the regression analysis have been confirmed by comparisons between the model calculations and the actual field observations. It is emphasized that obtaining representative estimates for Q for input into the model is equally important.Thus, this paper forms part of the long-term objective of the authors to develop more effective communications across the engineering and seismological disciplines. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/1922-
dc.relation.ispartofEarthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics-
dc.rightsEarthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics. Copyright © John Wiley & Sons Ltd.-
dc.rightsSpecial Statement for Preprint only Before publication: 'This is a preprint of an article accepted for publication in [The Journal of Pathology] Copyright © ([year]) ([Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland])'. After publication: the preprint notice should be amended to follows: 'This is a preprint of an article published in [include the complete citation information for the final version of the Contribution as published in the print edition of the Journal]' For Cochrane Library/ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, add statement & acknowledgement : ‘This review is published as a Cochrane Review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 20XX, Issue X. Cochrane Reviews are regularly updated as new evidence emerges and in response to comments and criticisms, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews should be consulted for the most recent version of the Review.’ Please include reference to the Review and hyperlink to the original version using the following format e.g. Authors. Title of Review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 20XX, Issue #. Art. No.: CD00XXXX. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD00XXXX (insert persistent link to the article by using the URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD00XXXX) (This statement should refer to the most recent issue of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in which the Review published.)-
dc.subjectAttenuation-
dc.subjectComputer simulation-
dc.subjectSeismic waves-
dc.subjectSeismology-
dc.subjectStructural analysis-
dc.titleAn attenuation model for distant earthquakes-
dc.typeArticle-
dc.identifier.emailChandler, A: amchandl@hkucc.hku.hk-
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltext-
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/eqe.342-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0842301363-
dc.identifier.hkuros91431-
dc.identifier.volume33-
dc.identifier.issue2-
dc.identifier.spage183-
dc.identifier.epage210-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom-

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