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postgraduate thesis: Molecular analyses of chondrocyte differentiation and adaptation to ER stress

TitleMolecular analyses of chondrocyte differentiation and adaptation to ER stress
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Cheah, KSE
Issue Date2013
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Tan, Z. [谭志佳]. (2013). Molecular analyses of chondrocyte differentiation and adaptation to ER stress. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5016250
AbstractEndochondral bone development depends on the progression of chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and terminal differentiation, which requires precise transcriptional regulation and signaling coordination. Disturbance of this process would disrupt chondrocyte differentiation and lead to chondrodysplasias. In cells, a highly conserved mechanism, ER stress signaling, has been developed to sense the protein load and maintain the cellular homeostasis. In humans, mutations in COL10A1 induce ER stress and result in metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS). Previous analysis of a MCDS mouse model (13deltg mouse) had revealed a novel mechanism of chondrocyte adaptation to ER stress. The hypertrophic chondrocytes survive ER stress by reverting to a pre-hypertrophic like state (Tsang et al., 2007). To dissect the underlying mechanisms that coordinate chondrocyte survival, reverted differentiation and adaptation to ER stress, different chondrocyte populations in the wild type and 13del growth plates were fractionated for global gene expression analyses. The genome-wide expression profiles of proliferating chondrocytes, prehypertrophic chondrocytes, hypertrophic chondrocytes and terminally differentiated chondrocytes in the wild type growth plate provide molecular bases to understand the processes underlying both physiological and pathological bone growth. Systematic analyses of these transcriptomic data revealed the gene expression patterns and correlation in the dynamics of endochondral ossification. Genes associated with sterol metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis are enriched in the prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Selected genes (Wwp2, Zbtb20, Ppa1 and Ptgis) that may potentially contribute to endochondral ossification were identified differentially expressed in the growth plate. Bioinformatics approaches were applied to predict regulatory networks in chondrocytes at different differentiation stages, implying the essential and dominant roles of Sox9 in coordination of stage specific gene expression. We further confirmed that Sox9 directly regulates the transcription of Cyr61, Lmo4, Ppa1, Ptch1 and Trps1, suggesting that Sox9 integrates different steps of chondrocyte differentiation via regulation of its target genes and partially crosstalk with IHH signaling pathway. The information on gene expression and regulation from physiological growth plate provides important basis to understand the molecular defects of chondrodysplasia. The hypertrophic zone in 13del growth plate was fractionated into upper, middle and lower parts for microarray profiling, corresponding for the onset of ER stress, onset of reverted differentiation and adaptation phase. Comparative transcriptomics of wild type and 13del growth plates revealed genes related to glucose, amino acid and lipid metabolisms are up regulated in response to ER stress. Fgf21 was identified as a novel ER stress inducible factor regulated by ATF4. Removal of Fgf21 results in increasing cell apoptosis in 13del hypertrophic zone without affecting the reverted differentiation process. Up regulation of genes expression related to hypoxic stress (Slc2a1, Hyou1, Stc2 and Galectin3) in 13del hypertrophic chondrocytes suggested that survival and adaptation of chondrocytes to ER stress involve cross-regulation by other stress pathways. Our findings have provided a new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate chondrocyte survival under ER stress in vivo, and propose the integrative effects of hypoxic stress pathway during the stress adaptation process, which broaden the molecular horizons underlying chondrodysplasias caused by protein folding mutations.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectEndoplasmic reticulum
Cell differentiation
Cartilage cells
Dept/ProgramBiochemistry
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/209435

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorCheah, KSE-
dc.contributor.authorTan, Zhijia-
dc.contributor.author谭志佳-
dc.date.accessioned2015-04-17T23:10:08Z-
dc.date.available2015-04-17T23:10:08Z-
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.identifier.citationTan, Z. [谭志佳]. (2013). Molecular analyses of chondrocyte differentiation and adaptation to ER stress. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5016250-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/209435-
dc.description.abstractEndochondral bone development depends on the progression of chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and terminal differentiation, which requires precise transcriptional regulation and signaling coordination. Disturbance of this process would disrupt chondrocyte differentiation and lead to chondrodysplasias. In cells, a highly conserved mechanism, ER stress signaling, has been developed to sense the protein load and maintain the cellular homeostasis. In humans, mutations in COL10A1 induce ER stress and result in metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS). Previous analysis of a MCDS mouse model (13deltg mouse) had revealed a novel mechanism of chondrocyte adaptation to ER stress. The hypertrophic chondrocytes survive ER stress by reverting to a pre-hypertrophic like state (Tsang et al., 2007). To dissect the underlying mechanisms that coordinate chondrocyte survival, reverted differentiation and adaptation to ER stress, different chondrocyte populations in the wild type and 13del growth plates were fractionated for global gene expression analyses. The genome-wide expression profiles of proliferating chondrocytes, prehypertrophic chondrocytes, hypertrophic chondrocytes and terminally differentiated chondrocytes in the wild type growth plate provide molecular bases to understand the processes underlying both physiological and pathological bone growth. Systematic analyses of these transcriptomic data revealed the gene expression patterns and correlation in the dynamics of endochondral ossification. Genes associated with sterol metabolism and cholesterol biosynthesis are enriched in the prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Selected genes (Wwp2, Zbtb20, Ppa1 and Ptgis) that may potentially contribute to endochondral ossification were identified differentially expressed in the growth plate. Bioinformatics approaches were applied to predict regulatory networks in chondrocytes at different differentiation stages, implying the essential and dominant roles of Sox9 in coordination of stage specific gene expression. We further confirmed that Sox9 directly regulates the transcription of Cyr61, Lmo4, Ppa1, Ptch1 and Trps1, suggesting that Sox9 integrates different steps of chondrocyte differentiation via regulation of its target genes and partially crosstalk with IHH signaling pathway. The information on gene expression and regulation from physiological growth plate provides important basis to understand the molecular defects of chondrodysplasia. The hypertrophic zone in 13del growth plate was fractionated into upper, middle and lower parts for microarray profiling, corresponding for the onset of ER stress, onset of reverted differentiation and adaptation phase. Comparative transcriptomics of wild type and 13del growth plates revealed genes related to glucose, amino acid and lipid metabolisms are up regulated in response to ER stress. Fgf21 was identified as a novel ER stress inducible factor regulated by ATF4. Removal of Fgf21 results in increasing cell apoptosis in 13del hypertrophic zone without affecting the reverted differentiation process. Up regulation of genes expression related to hypoxic stress (Slc2a1, Hyou1, Stc2 and Galectin3) in 13del hypertrophic chondrocytes suggested that survival and adaptation of chondrocytes to ER stress involve cross-regulation by other stress pathways. Our findings have provided a new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate chondrocyte survival under ER stress in vivo, and propose the integrative effects of hypoxic stress pathway during the stress adaptation process, which broaden the molecular horizons underlying chondrodysplasias caused by protein folding mutations.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshEndoplasmic reticulum-
dc.subject.lcshCell differentiation-
dc.subject.lcshCartilage cells-
dc.titleMolecular analyses of chondrocyte differentiation and adaptation to ER stress-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5016250-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineBiochemistry-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5016250-
dc.date.hkucongregation2013-

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