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postgraduate thesis: Tumor suppressive functions of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF 4) in neuroblastoma

TitleTumor suppressive functions of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF 4) in neuroblastoma
Authors
Issue Date2011
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Tsoi, L. [蔡麗珊]. (2011). Tumor suppressive functions of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF 4) in neuroblastoma. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4732970
AbstractNeuroblastoma is a childhood solid tumor of a unique propensity to either regress spontaneously or grow relentlessly. Emerging evidence indicated that neuroblastoma contains heterogeneous populations of cells, and commitment of these cells to neuronal lineage may result in aggressive progression in patients, whereas to fibromuscular lineage may give a favorable outcome. However, mechanism(s) controlling the lineage commitment of neuroblastoma cells remains to be identified. Our preliminary data suggested that Kr?ppel-Like Factor 4 (KLF4) might promote neuroblastoma regression. KLF4 is a transcription factor regulating a variety of cellular functions, including proliferation and cell cycle progression. Recent studies have demonstrated that KLF4 may act as both tumor suppressor and oncogene in a cell-context dependent manner. Importantly, our preliminary data showed that low KLF4 expression is highly associated with poor clinical outcomes of the neuroblastoma patients. In addition, we found that overexpression of KLF4 suppresses neuroblastoma cell growth accompanied with loss of tumorigenicity. Morphologically, KLF4 overexpressing cells changed their morphologies to become epithelial-like, strongly substrate-adherent and expressing smooth muscle marker. Therefore, we hypothesized that KLF4 exerts its effects through two ways, it may (i) function to inhibit cell growth and reduce tumorigenicity; and (ii) promote differentiation of the neuroblastoma cells to the non-tumorigenic, fibromuscular-like cells. RT-PCR data revealed the differential expression of KLF4 in 11 neuroblastoma cell lines. In particular, a modest expression was found in Be(2)C, a cell line which was formerly demonstrated to differentiate and form tumor in mice xenograft assay. It was therefore chosen as the study model. To assess the effects of KLF4 knockdown on tumor growth, stable knockdown clones from Be(2)C cells were established by lentiviral transduction of KLF4-targeting shRNA. In parallel, clones that stably expressed non-target shRNA were used as controls. After the transduction, two stable knockdown clones showing significant KLF4 downregulation were isolated from single colony (monoclonal stable clones) and a pool of cells (polyclonal stable clones) respectively. The cell proliferation and growth rate of the stable clones were then measured by 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assay and growth curve assay. The results have indicated that both monoclonal and polyclonal stable KLF4 knockdown clones grow faster than the control clones. In order to examine the tumorigenicity in vivo, the stable clones were xenotransplanted to severe combined immunodeficient mice. The stable KLF4 knockdown clones showed a significant higher growth rate and formed a larger tumor. The stable clones were also treated with BrdU for four weeks for differentiation towards fibromuscular lineage. As anticipated, the control clones showed fibromuscular features, like more flattened and epithelial-like morphology. In contrast, the stable KLF4 knockdown clones failed to present the fibromuscular features after treatment. In addition, immunocytochemistry staining of SMA and quantitative analysis of the immunocytochemistry further confirmed that only the control clones showed higher SMA expression after BrdU treatment, while there is no change in the SMA expression in the stable KLF4 knockdown clones. These results demonstrated that KLF4 functioned by inhibiting neuroblastoma cell proliferation and growth, reducing the tumorigenicity, and it was required for fibromuscular differentiation.
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
SubjectCell proliferation
Antioncogenes
Neuroblastoma - Genetic aspects
Dept/ProgramSurgery
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/208425

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorTsoi, Lai-shan-
dc.contributor.author蔡麗珊-
dc.date.accessioned2015-03-09T02:47:49Z-
dc.date.available2015-03-09T02:47:49Z-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.identifier.citationTsoi, L. [蔡麗珊]. (2011). Tumor suppressive functions of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF 4) in neuroblastoma. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4732970-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/208425-
dc.description.abstractNeuroblastoma is a childhood solid tumor of a unique propensity to either regress spontaneously or grow relentlessly. Emerging evidence indicated that neuroblastoma contains heterogeneous populations of cells, and commitment of these cells to neuronal lineage may result in aggressive progression in patients, whereas to fibromuscular lineage may give a favorable outcome. However, mechanism(s) controlling the lineage commitment of neuroblastoma cells remains to be identified. Our preliminary data suggested that Kr?ppel-Like Factor 4 (KLF4) might promote neuroblastoma regression. KLF4 is a transcription factor regulating a variety of cellular functions, including proliferation and cell cycle progression. Recent studies have demonstrated that KLF4 may act as both tumor suppressor and oncogene in a cell-context dependent manner. Importantly, our preliminary data showed that low KLF4 expression is highly associated with poor clinical outcomes of the neuroblastoma patients. In addition, we found that overexpression of KLF4 suppresses neuroblastoma cell growth accompanied with loss of tumorigenicity. Morphologically, KLF4 overexpressing cells changed their morphologies to become epithelial-like, strongly substrate-adherent and expressing smooth muscle marker. Therefore, we hypothesized that KLF4 exerts its effects through two ways, it may (i) function to inhibit cell growth and reduce tumorigenicity; and (ii) promote differentiation of the neuroblastoma cells to the non-tumorigenic, fibromuscular-like cells. RT-PCR data revealed the differential expression of KLF4 in 11 neuroblastoma cell lines. In particular, a modest expression was found in Be(2)C, a cell line which was formerly demonstrated to differentiate and form tumor in mice xenograft assay. It was therefore chosen as the study model. To assess the effects of KLF4 knockdown on tumor growth, stable knockdown clones from Be(2)C cells were established by lentiviral transduction of KLF4-targeting shRNA. In parallel, clones that stably expressed non-target shRNA were used as controls. After the transduction, two stable knockdown clones showing significant KLF4 downregulation were isolated from single colony (monoclonal stable clones) and a pool of cells (polyclonal stable clones) respectively. The cell proliferation and growth rate of the stable clones were then measured by 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assay and growth curve assay. The results have indicated that both monoclonal and polyclonal stable KLF4 knockdown clones grow faster than the control clones. In order to examine the tumorigenicity in vivo, the stable clones were xenotransplanted to severe combined immunodeficient mice. The stable KLF4 knockdown clones showed a significant higher growth rate and formed a larger tumor. The stable clones were also treated with BrdU for four weeks for differentiation towards fibromuscular lineage. As anticipated, the control clones showed fibromuscular features, like more flattened and epithelial-like morphology. In contrast, the stable KLF4 knockdown clones failed to present the fibromuscular features after treatment. In addition, immunocytochemistry staining of SMA and quantitative analysis of the immunocytochemistry further confirmed that only the control clones showed higher SMA expression after BrdU treatment, while there is no change in the SMA expression in the stable KLF4 knockdown clones. These results demonstrated that KLF4 functioned by inhibiting neuroblastoma cell proliferation and growth, reducing the tumorigenicity, and it was required for fibromuscular differentiation.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshCell proliferation-
dc.subject.lcshAntioncogenes-
dc.subject.lcshNeuroblastoma - Genetic aspects-
dc.titleTumor suppressive functions of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF 4) in neuroblastoma-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4732970-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineSurgery-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4732970-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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