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postgraduate thesis: Machizukuri : the community-driven approach in heritage conservation : a case study of the Nara Machizukuri Center

TitleMachizukuri : the community-driven approach in heritage conservation : a case study of the Nara Machizukuri Center
Authors
Issue Date2014
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Kam, K. B. [甘家偉], Lim, M. [林明翰]. (2014). Machizukuri : the community-driven approach in heritage conservation : a case study of the Nara Machizukuri Center. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5347017
AbstractCommunity-driven approach to Heritage Conservation has been increasingly discussed internationally. One of the principles in the Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas drawn up by International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) stated “the participation and the involvement of the residents are essential for the success of the conservation programme and should be encouraged.” (ICOMOS 1987) One of the more well-known bottom-up approaches is Machizukuri from Japan.   The origin of Machizukuri in Japan largely stems from the desire of local residents to maintain and develop aspects of their living environment that can otherwise be threatened by external forces. The need to voice out on behalf of their own community is often a relatable trait for various communities all around the world.   In the case of Machizukuri, its origin was cast in the backdrop of a post-war Japan, where at first glance the entire country seemed to homogeneously focus solely on modernisation and economic development regardless of costs (Siegenthaler 2004, 3). But as the truth revealed, many local communities—far away from the Japan National Government in Tokyo and its consideration when shaping the country’s urban planning scheme of the time—often differ from the opinions of top-down decision makers on how their own neighbourhood should be developed.   When this Japanese concept of bottom-up approach first started, the leaders of these organisations were mainly made up of local non-professional residents, contrasting greatly to the conventional decision makers comprised of scholars and bureaucrats—the “traditional elite”. And yet, despite its modest beginning, after decades of development, Machizukuri is seen as a proven method to effectively solve a wide-range of issues in areas such as planning, heritage conservation, and disaster relief.   Over time, the Japan National Government gradually accepted the merits of Machizukuri, eventually incorporating it into national planning law. It was evident that local inputs often improved upon planning decisions made by top-down approach, and thereby increased the chance of successful implementation.   After several decades, Machizukuri is recognised as a proven bottom-up, community-driven concept that aimed for the improvement of quality of living through the participation of local citizens of Japan. It represents an important development in local politics and urban management in Japan. The recent citizen movement of Hong Kong, since the 1997 Handover, shared similarities to the situation that led to the creation of the Machizukuri movement in Japan at that time.      As Machizukuri gradually matures over the past decades, it became fully recognised in Japan and internationally as an effective method to conduct community-driven citizen participation activities. It can be a viable option for Hong Kong to consider as the citizens are exploring bottom-up conservation solutions.
DegreeMaster of Science in Conservation
SubjectCultural property - Conservation and restoration - Japan - Nara-shi
Dept/ProgramConservation
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/208066

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorKam, Ka-wai, Brian-
dc.contributor.authorLim, Ming-han-
dc.contributor.author林明翰-
dc.contributor.author甘家偉-
dc.date.accessioned2015-02-09T23:11:25Z-
dc.date.available2015-02-09T23:11:25Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationKam, K. B. [甘家偉], Lim, M. [林明翰]. (2014). Machizukuri : the community-driven approach in heritage conservation : a case study of the Nara Machizukuri Center. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5347017-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/208066-
dc.description.abstractCommunity-driven approach to Heritage Conservation has been increasingly discussed internationally. One of the principles in the Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas drawn up by International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) stated “the participation and the involvement of the residents are essential for the success of the conservation programme and should be encouraged.” (ICOMOS 1987) One of the more well-known bottom-up approaches is Machizukuri from Japan.   The origin of Machizukuri in Japan largely stems from the desire of local residents to maintain and develop aspects of their living environment that can otherwise be threatened by external forces. The need to voice out on behalf of their own community is often a relatable trait for various communities all around the world.   In the case of Machizukuri, its origin was cast in the backdrop of a post-war Japan, where at first glance the entire country seemed to homogeneously focus solely on modernisation and economic development regardless of costs (Siegenthaler 2004, 3). But as the truth revealed, many local communities—far away from the Japan National Government in Tokyo and its consideration when shaping the country’s urban planning scheme of the time—often differ from the opinions of top-down decision makers on how their own neighbourhood should be developed.   When this Japanese concept of bottom-up approach first started, the leaders of these organisations were mainly made up of local non-professional residents, contrasting greatly to the conventional decision makers comprised of scholars and bureaucrats—the “traditional elite”. And yet, despite its modest beginning, after decades of development, Machizukuri is seen as a proven method to effectively solve a wide-range of issues in areas such as planning, heritage conservation, and disaster relief.   Over time, the Japan National Government gradually accepted the merits of Machizukuri, eventually incorporating it into national planning law. It was evident that local inputs often improved upon planning decisions made by top-down approach, and thereby increased the chance of successful implementation.   After several decades, Machizukuri is recognised as a proven bottom-up, community-driven concept that aimed for the improvement of quality of living through the participation of local citizens of Japan. It represents an important development in local politics and urban management in Japan. The recent citizen movement of Hong Kong, since the 1997 Handover, shared similarities to the situation that led to the creation of the Machizukuri movement in Japan at that time.      As Machizukuri gradually matures over the past decades, it became fully recognised in Japan and internationally as an effective method to conduct community-driven citizen participation activities. It can be a viable option for Hong Kong to consider as the citizens are exploring bottom-up conservation solutions.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subject.lcshCultural property - Conservation and restoration - Japan - Nara-shi-
dc.titleMachizukuri : the community-driven approach in heritage conservation : a case study of the Nara Machizukuri Center-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5347017-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Science in Conservation-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineConservation-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5347017-

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