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postgraduate thesis: Oncogenic mutations as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

TitleOncogenic mutations as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in lung cancer
Authors
Issue Date2014
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Lam, C. D. [林志良]. (2014). Oncogenic mutations as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in lung cancer. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5333551
AbstractOncogenic mutations in lung cancer further our knowledge about cancer initiation and progression, and may guide personalized treatment. The fact that targeted therapy is most effective in subsets of patients with defined molecular targets indicates the need for classification of clinically-related molecular tumor phenotypes based on the presence of oncogenic mutations, including EGFR mutations and EML4-ALK rearrangements. The identification of EGFR mutations, in up to half of lung adenocarcinomas in Asians, could predict clinical sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). However, testing for mutations is not always possible due to tumor tissue availability. The therapeutic decision sometimes remains a clinical one especially for elderly lung cancer patients but no known mutation status. We studied the survival outcomes of targeted therapy versus conventional chemotherapy in elderly patients with lung cancer when we did not yet have routine EGFR mutation testing and demonstrated comparable survival outcomes in targeted therapy compared to chemotherapy, implying that survival with targeted therapy could be better if the treatment population could be selected with EGFR mutations. Though testing for EGFR mutation in tumor biopsy have later become routine practice and remains the accepted reference for therapeutic decision, the detection of EGFR mutations in plasma DNA with high diagnostic performance will be useful adjunct for diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring. Among patients with EGFR mutations in tumor biopsy, the concurrent detection of EGFR mutation in plasma DNA was found to confer a less favorable prognosis in terms of overall survival than those patients with EGFR mutations in tumor biopsy but the corresponding mutation was not detected in plasma. Other oncogenic mutations with therapeutic implications in lung tumors are yet to be fully explored, like ALK, KRAS, ROS1 or NTRK1 mutations. It is not exactly the tumor – but the mutations in the tumor that need to be explored with reference to clinical behavior. Even with EGFR mutation with well-established clinical implications, further exploration into its mechanistic functions will help in understanding of drug resistance. Lung cancer cell lines established from patients with known mutation profiles could be useful tools for studying the biology of known molecular targets as well as for therapeutic testing. Four new lung adenocarcinoma and one mesothelioma cell lines were established from patients with different clinical characteristics and oncogenic mutation profiles. These cell lines with defined mutation profiles will provide tools for exploration of lung cancer and mesothelioma biology with respect to molecular therapeutic targets. The Large Tumor Suppressor 2 (LATS2) gene was a differentially expressed gene between EGFR mutant and wildtype lung adenocarcinomas. The differential LATS2 expression levels were predictive of survival in patients with resected lung AD and may modulate tumor growth via different signaling pathways in EGFR mutant and wild-type tumors. The identification of oncogenic mutations has led to a new paradigm of targeted therapy in lung cancer. Further improvements in outcome of lung cancer management will stem from research into the biology of oncogenic mutations and their clinico-pathological correlations, which would fuel parallel development of clinically efficacious targeted therapies.
DegreeDoctor of Medicine
SubjectLungs - Cancer - Treatment
Lungs - Cancer - Genetic aspects
Dept/ProgramMedicine
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/207610

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLam, Chi-leung, David-
dc.contributor.author林志良-
dc.date.accessioned2015-01-12T23:18:51Z-
dc.date.available2015-01-12T23:18:51Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationLam, C. D. [林志良]. (2014). Oncogenic mutations as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in lung cancer. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5333551-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/207610-
dc.description.abstractOncogenic mutations in lung cancer further our knowledge about cancer initiation and progression, and may guide personalized treatment. The fact that targeted therapy is most effective in subsets of patients with defined molecular targets indicates the need for classification of clinically-related molecular tumor phenotypes based on the presence of oncogenic mutations, including EGFR mutations and EML4-ALK rearrangements. The identification of EGFR mutations, in up to half of lung adenocarcinomas in Asians, could predict clinical sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). However, testing for mutations is not always possible due to tumor tissue availability. The therapeutic decision sometimes remains a clinical one especially for elderly lung cancer patients but no known mutation status. We studied the survival outcomes of targeted therapy versus conventional chemotherapy in elderly patients with lung cancer when we did not yet have routine EGFR mutation testing and demonstrated comparable survival outcomes in targeted therapy compared to chemotherapy, implying that survival with targeted therapy could be better if the treatment population could be selected with EGFR mutations. Though testing for EGFR mutation in tumor biopsy have later become routine practice and remains the accepted reference for therapeutic decision, the detection of EGFR mutations in plasma DNA with high diagnostic performance will be useful adjunct for diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring. Among patients with EGFR mutations in tumor biopsy, the concurrent detection of EGFR mutation in plasma DNA was found to confer a less favorable prognosis in terms of overall survival than those patients with EGFR mutations in tumor biopsy but the corresponding mutation was not detected in plasma. Other oncogenic mutations with therapeutic implications in lung tumors are yet to be fully explored, like ALK, KRAS, ROS1 or NTRK1 mutations. It is not exactly the tumor – but the mutations in the tumor that need to be explored with reference to clinical behavior. Even with EGFR mutation with well-established clinical implications, further exploration into its mechanistic functions will help in understanding of drug resistance. Lung cancer cell lines established from patients with known mutation profiles could be useful tools for studying the biology of known molecular targets as well as for therapeutic testing. Four new lung adenocarcinoma and one mesothelioma cell lines were established from patients with different clinical characteristics and oncogenic mutation profiles. These cell lines with defined mutation profiles will provide tools for exploration of lung cancer and mesothelioma biology with respect to molecular therapeutic targets. The Large Tumor Suppressor 2 (LATS2) gene was a differentially expressed gene between EGFR mutant and wildtype lung adenocarcinomas. The differential LATS2 expression levels were predictive of survival in patients with resected lung AD and may modulate tumor growth via different signaling pathways in EGFR mutant and wild-type tumors. The identification of oncogenic mutations has led to a new paradigm of targeted therapy in lung cancer. Further improvements in outcome of lung cancer management will stem from research into the biology of oncogenic mutations and their clinico-pathological correlations, which would fuel parallel development of clinically efficacious targeted therapies.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subject.lcshLungs - Cancer - Treatment-
dc.subject.lcshLungs - Cancer - Genetic aspects-
dc.titleOncogenic mutations as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in lung cancer-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5333551-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Medicine-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineMedicine-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5333551-

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