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Article: Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children

TitleCephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children
Authors
KeywordsCephalometry
Chinese
Children
Upper airway
Issue Date2014
PublisherBioMed Central Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.head-face-med.com
Citation
Head & Face Medicine, 2014, v. 10, article no. 38 How to Cite?
AbstractOBJECTIVE: To establish cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children, and to assess these norms with regard to gender, age, ethnicity and other craniofacial structures. METHODS: Lateral cephalograms were obtained from a random sample of 425 12-year-old Chinese children (224 boys and 201 girls) to establish the Chinese norms, and from a matched group of 108 12-year-old Caucasian children (61 boys and 47 girls) as an ethnic comparison. Published data on the upper airway norms of Chinese adults were used to make age comparisons. Nine upper airway and 14 craniofacial variables were measured. RESULTS: Chinese boys tended to have a thicker soft palate (P = 0.008), and less depth in the retropalatal (P = 0.011), retroglossal (P = 0.034) and hypopharyngeal (P < 0.001) pharynx than Chinese girls, whereas no gender dimorphism was found in Caucasian children. Ethnic differences were found in the depth of the retroglossal oropharynx in both genders and the position of the hyoid bone in boys. Compared with Chinese adults, the overall size of the upper airway in Chinese children was smaller. The mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination were found to be statistically significantly, albeit weakly correlated with upper airway variables. CONCLUSIONS: Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of Chinese 12-year-old children were established, indicating gender-specific differences, and some ethnic differences were found in comparison with those of 12-year-old Caucasian children. An association between the mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination with upper airway variables was also noticeable.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/206987
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 0.916
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 0.416
PubMed Central ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorGu, M-
dc.contributor.authorMcGrath, CPJ-
dc.contributor.authorWong, RWK-
dc.contributor.authorHagg, U-
dc.contributor.authorYang, Y-
dc.date.accessioned2014-12-05T04:34:40Z-
dc.date.available2014-12-05T04:34:40Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationHead & Face Medicine, 2014, v. 10, article no. 38-
dc.identifier.issn1746-160X-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/206987-
dc.description.abstractOBJECTIVE: To establish cephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese children, and to assess these norms with regard to gender, age, ethnicity and other craniofacial structures. METHODS: Lateral cephalograms were obtained from a random sample of 425 12-year-old Chinese children (224 boys and 201 girls) to establish the Chinese norms, and from a matched group of 108 12-year-old Caucasian children (61 boys and 47 girls) as an ethnic comparison. Published data on the upper airway norms of Chinese adults were used to make age comparisons. Nine upper airway and 14 craniofacial variables were measured. RESULTS: Chinese boys tended to have a thicker soft palate (P = 0.008), and less depth in the retropalatal (P = 0.011), retroglossal (P = 0.034) and hypopharyngeal (P < 0.001) pharynx than Chinese girls, whereas no gender dimorphism was found in Caucasian children. Ethnic differences were found in the depth of the retroglossal oropharynx in both genders and the position of the hyoid bone in boys. Compared with Chinese adults, the overall size of the upper airway in Chinese children was smaller. The mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination were found to be statistically significantly, albeit weakly correlated with upper airway variables. CONCLUSIONS: Cephalometric norms for the upper airway of Chinese 12-year-old children were established, indicating gender-specific differences, and some ethnic differences were found in comparison with those of 12-year-old Caucasian children. An association between the mandibular body length and the craniocervical inclination with upper airway variables was also noticeable.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.head-face-med.com-
dc.relation.ispartofHead & Face Medicine-
dc.rightsHead & Face Medicine. Copyright © BioMed Central Ltd.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subjectCephalometry-
dc.subjectChinese-
dc.subjectChildren-
dc.subjectUpper airway-
dc.titleCephalometric norms for the upper airway of 12-year-old Chinese childrenen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailGu, M: drgumin@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailMcGrath, CPJ: mcgrathc@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailWong, RWK: fyoung@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailHagg, U: euohagg@hku.hk-
dc.identifier.emailYang, Y: yangyanq@hkucc.hku.hk-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/1746-160X-10-38-
dc.identifier.pmid25218804-
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC4168695-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84907384123-
dc.identifier.hkuros245158-
dc.identifier.volume10-
dc.identifier.spagearticle no. 38-
dc.identifier.epagearticle no. 38-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdom-
dc.customcontrol.immutablesml 141205-

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