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postgraduate thesis: Cervical screening programme : 10 years of success or failure?

TitleCervical screening programme : 10 years of success or failure?
Authors
Issue Date2014
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Kee, F. [紀思思]. (2014). Cervical screening programme : 10 years of success or failure?. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5320371
AbstractCervical cancer is the ninth leading cause of female cancer deaths in Hong Kong. In 2011, 391 new cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed and the age-standardized incidence rate was 7.2 per 100,000 standard populations. In 2012, 133 women died from this cancer, accounting for 2.5% of female cancer deaths. The age-standardized death rate of cervical cancer was 2.1 per 100,000 standard populations. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established cause of cervical cancer. HPV vaccines offer more than 70% protection for women against HPV types 16 and 18 infections and their related cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. As there are usually no symptoms in high-risk HPV infection, it is often diagnosed at a late stage. Regular cervical smears can offer early detection of pathological changes and pre-cancerous stage for a timely medical treatment to prevent progression to cervical cancer. The Cervical Screening Programme (CSP) of Department of Health (DH) was launched on 8 March 2004. It is a voluntary program with the objectives to increase the population coverage of cervical screening among women and to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Hong Kong. Women participating in the programme are encouraged to have cervical smears in the medical centres of their own choices and to provide their cervical smear information through their health care providers to the central registry of the CSP - The Cervical Screening Information System (CSIS). As at 31 December 2013, 491,674 women have registered with CSP. When DH implemented CSP in March 2004, a report was published in the same year showing evidence that an organized screening compared with the opportunistic screening could substantially increase benefits and reduce costs. Another local study conducted early this year supported by the Health Services Research Fund also highlighted the importance and urgency in enhancing the current screening protocol. It is of public health interests to study and compare the programme outcomes with countries like Finland, Australia, UK and Japan where different policy was adopted for the prevention of cervical cancer. Information gathered from research papers on epidemiological studies has been collected and analyzed on population benefit (outcome, access, disparities), cost (cost benefit, efficiency, cost containment), equity, feasibility and constituency perspectives in formulation of the policy alternatives. In conclusion, strengthening what is already in place with better allocative efficiency could protect the female population against cervical cancer. From the education perspective, emphasis on the risk of HPV infection in the sex education curriculum would raise the awareness on the precaution of HPV infections amongst young females. Additionally, vaccination at the age of 12 can provide protection against most types of HPV. It is strongly recommended that a cervical screening and HPV co-testing strategy at a triennial interval could provide the best cost and benefit effectiveness. Together they can enhance protection coverage of women at 12 through immunization and from 25 - 64 through active population screening. The ultimate objectives to reduce incidence, mortality and increase coverage could be achieved.
DegreeMaster of Public Health
SubjectCervix uteri - Cancer - Diagnosis
Dept/ProgramPublic Health
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/206964

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorKee, Francis-
dc.contributor.author紀思思-
dc.date.accessioned2014-12-04T23:17:23Z-
dc.date.available2014-12-04T23:17:23Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationKee, F. [紀思思]. (2014). Cervical screening programme : 10 years of success or failure?. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5320371-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/206964-
dc.description.abstractCervical cancer is the ninth leading cause of female cancer deaths in Hong Kong. In 2011, 391 new cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed and the age-standardized incidence rate was 7.2 per 100,000 standard populations. In 2012, 133 women died from this cancer, accounting for 2.5% of female cancer deaths. The age-standardized death rate of cervical cancer was 2.1 per 100,000 standard populations. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established cause of cervical cancer. HPV vaccines offer more than 70% protection for women against HPV types 16 and 18 infections and their related cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. As there are usually no symptoms in high-risk HPV infection, it is often diagnosed at a late stage. Regular cervical smears can offer early detection of pathological changes and pre-cancerous stage for a timely medical treatment to prevent progression to cervical cancer. The Cervical Screening Programme (CSP) of Department of Health (DH) was launched on 8 March 2004. It is a voluntary program with the objectives to increase the population coverage of cervical screening among women and to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Hong Kong. Women participating in the programme are encouraged to have cervical smears in the medical centres of their own choices and to provide their cervical smear information through their health care providers to the central registry of the CSP - The Cervical Screening Information System (CSIS). As at 31 December 2013, 491,674 women have registered with CSP. When DH implemented CSP in March 2004, a report was published in the same year showing evidence that an organized screening compared with the opportunistic screening could substantially increase benefits and reduce costs. Another local study conducted early this year supported by the Health Services Research Fund also highlighted the importance and urgency in enhancing the current screening protocol. It is of public health interests to study and compare the programme outcomes with countries like Finland, Australia, UK and Japan where different policy was adopted for the prevention of cervical cancer. Information gathered from research papers on epidemiological studies has been collected and analyzed on population benefit (outcome, access, disparities), cost (cost benefit, efficiency, cost containment), equity, feasibility and constituency perspectives in formulation of the policy alternatives. In conclusion, strengthening what is already in place with better allocative efficiency could protect the female population against cervical cancer. From the education perspective, emphasis on the risk of HPV infection in the sex education curriculum would raise the awareness on the precaution of HPV infections amongst young females. Additionally, vaccination at the age of 12 can provide protection against most types of HPV. It is strongly recommended that a cervical screening and HPV co-testing strategy at a triennial interval could provide the best cost and benefit effectiveness. Together they can enhance protection coverage of women at 12 through immunization and from 25 - 64 through active population screening. The ultimate objectives to reduce incidence, mortality and increase coverage could be achieved.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshCervix uteri - Cancer - Diagnosis-
dc.titleCervical screening programme : 10 years of success or failure?-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5320371-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Public Health-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePublic Health-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5320371-

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