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postgraduate thesis: An examination of the livability of dense urban neighborhoods in Dhaka : the impacts of urban planning

TitleAn examination of the livability of dense urban neighborhoods in Dhaka : the impacts of urban planning
Authors
Issue Date2014
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Satu, S. A.. (2014). An examination of the livability of dense urban neighborhoods in Dhaka : the impacts of urban planning. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5328047
AbstractAs the role of the cities has gained currency in the sustainability discourse since 1990s, improvement of livability has been emphasized alongside with environmental conservation to enhance urban sustainability. Many developed countries increase urban density purposely to pursue better livability and environmental sustainability. Contrarily, cities in the developing countries densify haphazardly without any policy directives. Dhaka is a case in point. The goal of this pioneering study is to formulate recommendations for improving Dhaka’s planning system and policy in order to enhance its livability, by investigating the livability of Dhaka’s dense urban neighborhoods. To achieve this goal, this study addresses three research questions: what are the density attributes of Dhaka; how livable is Dhaka’s urban neighborhoods under a dense environment; and how have the urban planning system and policy influenced the density of Dhaka? The literature related to density, livability and sustainable urban forms was reviewed to establish the analytical framework. To examine the density attributes, this study investigated population density, building density and housing form mix. For the livability of the dense neighborhoods, it investigated public facilities and services provision, and the sense of community and safety. Further, the planning strategy, land use planning, planning and building regulations and land policy were examined to identify their influence on density and livability. Five neighborhoods from the planned and unplanned areas were selected for case studies, involving a questionnaire survey, interviews, field observation and documentary analysis. This study found that as a low-rise city, Dhaka’s extremely high density implies a very compact urban form. The planned areas are of relatively lower population density but have taller buildings and greater distance between buildings than in the unplanned areas. High density was also found in congruence with the Bangladeshi culture. Across the neighborhoods, the community facilities, safety and dwelling space standards were satisfactory. However, the provision of and accessibility to public transport, open space and sense of community were less satisfactory. The neighborhoods of the planned areas were more livable. Nonetheless, in the neighborhoods of the unplanned areas, the greater use of street corners fostered social contacts and safety feeling. The absence of density zoning and land subdivision controls, the ineffective land use planning mechanism, violation of the planning standards and building regulations have led to uncontrolled population growth exceeding infrastructure capacity. The lack of planning vision and the weak institutional capacity of the planning authority mainly accounted for these problems. This study recommends introducing land subdivision restrictions, density zoning, and scientific designation and formulation of land use zones. Strengthening of the institutional capacity of the planning authority is also important for enabling effective enforcement of planning tools, regulations and standards. By comparing the planned and unplanned areas, this study also recommends that planning and building controls should be effectively enforced to ensure greater distance between buildings. Open spaces should also be located within walking distance and more street corners should be planned to enhance the sense of community and safety.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectCity planning - Bangladesh - Dhaka
Dept/ProgramUrban Planning and Design
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/206743

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorSatu, Shammi Akter-
dc.date.accessioned2014-11-29T23:16:34Z-
dc.date.available2014-11-29T23:16:34Z-
dc.date.issued2014-
dc.identifier.citationSatu, S. A.. (2014). An examination of the livability of dense urban neighborhoods in Dhaka : the impacts of urban planning. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5328047-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/206743-
dc.description.abstractAs the role of the cities has gained currency in the sustainability discourse since 1990s, improvement of livability has been emphasized alongside with environmental conservation to enhance urban sustainability. Many developed countries increase urban density purposely to pursue better livability and environmental sustainability. Contrarily, cities in the developing countries densify haphazardly without any policy directives. Dhaka is a case in point. The goal of this pioneering study is to formulate recommendations for improving Dhaka’s planning system and policy in order to enhance its livability, by investigating the livability of Dhaka’s dense urban neighborhoods. To achieve this goal, this study addresses three research questions: what are the density attributes of Dhaka; how livable is Dhaka’s urban neighborhoods under a dense environment; and how have the urban planning system and policy influenced the density of Dhaka? The literature related to density, livability and sustainable urban forms was reviewed to establish the analytical framework. To examine the density attributes, this study investigated population density, building density and housing form mix. For the livability of the dense neighborhoods, it investigated public facilities and services provision, and the sense of community and safety. Further, the planning strategy, land use planning, planning and building regulations and land policy were examined to identify their influence on density and livability. Five neighborhoods from the planned and unplanned areas were selected for case studies, involving a questionnaire survey, interviews, field observation and documentary analysis. This study found that as a low-rise city, Dhaka’s extremely high density implies a very compact urban form. The planned areas are of relatively lower population density but have taller buildings and greater distance between buildings than in the unplanned areas. High density was also found in congruence with the Bangladeshi culture. Across the neighborhoods, the community facilities, safety and dwelling space standards were satisfactory. However, the provision of and accessibility to public transport, open space and sense of community were less satisfactory. The neighborhoods of the planned areas were more livable. Nonetheless, in the neighborhoods of the unplanned areas, the greater use of street corners fostered social contacts and safety feeling. The absence of density zoning and land subdivision controls, the ineffective land use planning mechanism, violation of the planning standards and building regulations have led to uncontrolled population growth exceeding infrastructure capacity. The lack of planning vision and the weak institutional capacity of the planning authority mainly accounted for these problems. This study recommends introducing land subdivision restrictions, density zoning, and scientific designation and formulation of land use zones. Strengthening of the institutional capacity of the planning authority is also important for enabling effective enforcement of planning tools, regulations and standards. By comparing the planned and unplanned areas, this study also recommends that planning and building controls should be effectively enforced to ensure greater distance between buildings. Open spaces should also be located within walking distance and more street corners should be planned to enhance the sense of community and safety.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshCity planning - Bangladesh - Dhaka-
dc.titleAn examination of the livability of dense urban neighborhoods in Dhaka : the impacts of urban planning-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5328047-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineUrban Planning and Design-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5328047-

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