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Article: Testing gender invariance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale using the classical approach and Bayesian approach

TitleTesting gender invariance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale using the classical approach and Bayesian approach
Authors
Issue Date2014
PublisherSpringer Netherlands. The Journal's web site is located at http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0962-9343
Citation
Quality of Life Research, 2014, v. 23 n. 5, p. 1421-1426 How to Cite?
AbstractPurpose Measurement invariance is an important attribute for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Most of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) studies on the HADS adopt the classical maximum likelihood approach. The restrictive assumptions of exact zero cross-loadings and residual correlations in the classical approach can lead to inadequate model fit and biased parameter estimates. The present study adopted both the classical approach and the alternative Bayesian approach to examine the measurement and structural invariance of the HADS across gender. Methods A Chinese sample of 326 males and 427 females was used to examine the two-factor model of the HADS across gender. Configural and scalar invariance of the HADS were evaluated using the classical approach with the robust weighted least square estimator and the Bayesian approach with zero-mean, small variance informative priors for cross-loadings and residual correlations. Results Acceptable and excellent model fits were found for the two-factor model under the classical and Bayesian approaches, respectively. The two-factor model displayed scalar invariance across gender using both approaches. In terms of structural invariance, females showed a significantly higher mean in the anxiety factor than males under both approaches. Conclusion The HADS demonstrated measurement invariance across gender and appears to be a well-developed instrument for assessment of anxiety and depression. The Bayesian approach is an alternative and flexible tool that could be used in future invariance studies.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/197641
ISI Accession Number ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorFong, TCTen_US
dc.contributor.authorHo, RTHen_US
dc.date.accessioned2014-05-29T08:34:03Z-
dc.date.available2014-05-29T08:34:03Z-
dc.date.issued2014en_US
dc.identifier.citationQuality of Life Research, 2014, v. 23 n. 5, p. 1421-1426en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/197641-
dc.description.abstractPurpose Measurement invariance is an important attribute for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Most of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) studies on the HADS adopt the classical maximum likelihood approach. The restrictive assumptions of exact zero cross-loadings and residual correlations in the classical approach can lead to inadequate model fit and biased parameter estimates. The present study adopted both the classical approach and the alternative Bayesian approach to examine the measurement and structural invariance of the HADS across gender. Methods A Chinese sample of 326 males and 427 females was used to examine the two-factor model of the HADS across gender. Configural and scalar invariance of the HADS were evaluated using the classical approach with the robust weighted least square estimator and the Bayesian approach with zero-mean, small variance informative priors for cross-loadings and residual correlations. Results Acceptable and excellent model fits were found for the two-factor model under the classical and Bayesian approaches, respectively. The two-factor model displayed scalar invariance across gender using both approaches. In terms of structural invariance, females showed a significantly higher mean in the anxiety factor than males under both approaches. Conclusion The HADS demonstrated measurement invariance across gender and appears to be a well-developed instrument for assessment of anxiety and depression. The Bayesian approach is an alternative and flexible tool that could be used in future invariance studies.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherSpringer Netherlands. The Journal's web site is located at http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=journal&issn=0962-9343en_US
dc.relation.ispartofQuality of Life Researchen_US
dc.rightsThe original publication is available at www.springerlink.comen_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.titleTesting gender invariance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale using the classical approach and Bayesian approachen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailFong, TCT: h0330997@graduate.hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.emailHo, RTH: tinho@hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityHo, RTH=rp00497en_US
dc.description.naturepostprint-
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s11136-013-0594-3en_US
dc.identifier.pmid24307211-
dc.identifier.hkuros228840en_US
dc.identifier.spage1421en_US
dc.identifier.epage1426en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000336423200002-

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