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postgraduate thesis: Inducing the progressive differentiation of hESCs into pancreatic progenitor cells

TitleInducing the progressive differentiation of hESCs into pancreatic progenitor cells
Authors
Advisors
Issue Date2013
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Chong, T. I. [莊子逸]. (2013). Inducing the progressive differentiation of hESCs into pancreatic progenitor cells. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5177339
AbstractDiabetes is a chronic disorder of the pancreas, where a decline in the insulin-producing β-cell population disrupts metabolic homeostasis. Pancreatic transplantation has shown to be effective in circumventing the problem of β-cell insufficiency. However, availability of donor islets remains an obstacle. Although progressive differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to pancreatic β-cells is a solution, current protocols are wrought with inefficiencies. It is obvious that to realize ESC differentiation for therapy many steps need to be optimized, and this study describes improvement of Pdx1+pancreatic progenitor derivation, a critical determinant of pancreatic fate. The compounds melatonin and sPDZD2 have been suggested to act through the Protein Kinase A (PKA) pathway to exert transcriptional effects, and in particular sPDZD2 stimulates the expression of pancreatic genes in INS-1E rat pancreatic cells. This led to the hypothesis that the PKA-targeting characteristics of said molecules could be exploited for pancreatic specification through post-translational activation ofPdx1. hESCs were first induced to form definitive endoderm before treatment with melatonin and sPDZD2. Pdx1 expression induced by these molecules was then compared with levels triggered by known pancreatic progenitor inducer Indolactam V (ILV). A secondary objective of this study was to assess the endoderm induction potential of small molecules in hESCs, which claim to be potentially useful in differentiation. In this research, I show that small molecules are noticeably more challenging to use in the hESC context. Between the TGF-β pathwayactivatorsIDE-1 and 2, the latter is more potent at inducing endoderm formation, though it does not surpass the capabilities of Stauprimide, a molecule originally thought to only serve a priming purpose in mESCs.IDE-2 and Stauprimide consistently perform better than Activin A, the near universal factor for endoderm induction. Possible synergy between IDE-2 and Stauprimide was explored, but their combination appears detrimental to Sox17expression. Subsequent pancreatic differentiation was also inefficient, and my results affirm the immaturity of chemically-induced endoderm by contrasting with mainstream means of endoderm induction; levels of endoderm marker expression between the two methods are millions of folds apart. This work exposes the risks of using small molecules, and they necessitate proper characterization before being adopted for differentiation. Most favorably, both sPDZD2 and melatonin were able to trigger Pdx1 expression in STEMDiffTm derived definitive endoderm; 10 and 30folds respectively, comparable to the known Pdx1 inducer ILV (25 folds). I also reveal concentration-mediated differentiation and proliferative purposes of ILV and sPDZD2, which are highly reminiscent of the signaling mechanisms involved during pancreatic development. Preliminary quantification of Pdx1+ cells suggest that high concentrations of ILV and sPDZD2 favor self-renewal of Pdx1+ progenitors, whilst lower doses elevate Pdx1 expression. Demonstration of Pdx1 at both gene and protein expression levels was encouraging, but it remains uncertain if melatonin and sPDZD2 manipulate PKA signaling to exert Pdx1 promoting effects. My work supports the use of melatonin as a candidate for pancreatic differentiation, and suggests involvement of sPDZD2 in deriving and expanding progenitors during pancreatic organogenesis.
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
SubjectEmbryonic stem cells
Pancreatic beta cells
Dept/ProgramBiochemistry
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/196433

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorLee, CYL-
dc.contributor.advisorYao, KM-
dc.contributor.advisorShiu, SYW-
dc.contributor.authorChong, Tsz-yat, Ian-
dc.contributor.author莊子逸-
dc.date.accessioned2014-04-11T23:14:22Z-
dc.date.available2014-04-11T23:14:22Z-
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.identifier.citationChong, T. I. [莊子逸]. (2013). Inducing the progressive differentiation of hESCs into pancreatic progenitor cells. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5177339-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/196433-
dc.description.abstractDiabetes is a chronic disorder of the pancreas, where a decline in the insulin-producing β-cell population disrupts metabolic homeostasis. Pancreatic transplantation has shown to be effective in circumventing the problem of β-cell insufficiency. However, availability of donor islets remains an obstacle. Although progressive differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to pancreatic β-cells is a solution, current protocols are wrought with inefficiencies. It is obvious that to realize ESC differentiation for therapy many steps need to be optimized, and this study describes improvement of Pdx1+pancreatic progenitor derivation, a critical determinant of pancreatic fate. The compounds melatonin and sPDZD2 have been suggested to act through the Protein Kinase A (PKA) pathway to exert transcriptional effects, and in particular sPDZD2 stimulates the expression of pancreatic genes in INS-1E rat pancreatic cells. This led to the hypothesis that the PKA-targeting characteristics of said molecules could be exploited for pancreatic specification through post-translational activation ofPdx1. hESCs were first induced to form definitive endoderm before treatment with melatonin and sPDZD2. Pdx1 expression induced by these molecules was then compared with levels triggered by known pancreatic progenitor inducer Indolactam V (ILV). A secondary objective of this study was to assess the endoderm induction potential of small molecules in hESCs, which claim to be potentially useful in differentiation. In this research, I show that small molecules are noticeably more challenging to use in the hESC context. Between the TGF-β pathwayactivatorsIDE-1 and 2, the latter is more potent at inducing endoderm formation, though it does not surpass the capabilities of Stauprimide, a molecule originally thought to only serve a priming purpose in mESCs.IDE-2 and Stauprimide consistently perform better than Activin A, the near universal factor for endoderm induction. Possible synergy between IDE-2 and Stauprimide was explored, but their combination appears detrimental to Sox17expression. Subsequent pancreatic differentiation was also inefficient, and my results affirm the immaturity of chemically-induced endoderm by contrasting with mainstream means of endoderm induction; levels of endoderm marker expression between the two methods are millions of folds apart. This work exposes the risks of using small molecules, and they necessitate proper characterization before being adopted for differentiation. Most favorably, both sPDZD2 and melatonin were able to trigger Pdx1 expression in STEMDiffTm derived definitive endoderm; 10 and 30folds respectively, comparable to the known Pdx1 inducer ILV (25 folds). I also reveal concentration-mediated differentiation and proliferative purposes of ILV and sPDZD2, which are highly reminiscent of the signaling mechanisms involved during pancreatic development. Preliminary quantification of Pdx1+ cells suggest that high concentrations of ILV and sPDZD2 favor self-renewal of Pdx1+ progenitors, whilst lower doses elevate Pdx1 expression. Demonstration of Pdx1 at both gene and protein expression levels was encouraging, but it remains uncertain if melatonin and sPDZD2 manipulate PKA signaling to exert Pdx1 promoting effects. My work supports the use of melatonin as a candidate for pancreatic differentiation, and suggests involvement of sPDZD2 in deriving and expanding progenitors during pancreatic organogenesis.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshEmbryonic stem cells-
dc.subject.lcshPancreatic beta cells-
dc.titleInducing the progressive differentiation of hESCs into pancreatic progenitor cells-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5177339-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineBiochemistry-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5177339-

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