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postgraduate thesis: The inhibitory effects of human cytomegalovirus on megakaryopoiesis : megekaryocytic cells and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stormal cells

TitleThe inhibitory effects of human cytomegalovirus on megakaryopoiesis : megekaryocytic cells and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stormal cells
Authors
Issue Date2013
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Chen, J. [陈健良]. (2013). The inhibitory effects of human cytomegalovirus on megakaryopoiesis : megekaryocytic cells and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stormal cells. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5108669
AbstractThrombocytopenia is one of the most common hematologic presentations of active human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, especially in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations and newborns of congenital HCMV infection. However, mechanisms of HCMV-induced thrombocytopenia have not been well understood. The precursor of circulating platelets – megakaryocyte, is derived from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell in bone marrow. We postulate that inhibition to megakaryocytic development is the major pathogenesis of HCMV-induced thrombocytopenia. Megakaryocytic cells as well as supportive microenvironment in bone marrow are major targets of HCMV infection. Presented study mainly focused on the impacts of HCMV to megakaryocytic cells and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) - the precursor of bone marrow stromal cells. Based on a megakaryocytic cell model challenged by HCMV in vitro, inhibited megakaryocytic endomitosis, proliferation, and cellular expression were respectively demonstrated as decreased polyploidy population, decreased colony formation, and reduced c-Mpl (thrombopoietin receptor) expressing cells. Evoked apoptosis of megakaryocytic cells was also evidenced with increased phosphatidylserine exposure on cell surface and intracellular caspase-3 activation after HCMV infection. Involvement of mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptosis was further shown as losing JC-1 fluorescent signal in infected megakaryocytic cells. These results suggest that inhibition induced by HCMV is exerted through multiple processes directly affecting the megakaryopoietic development. Functional failure of bone marrow microenvironment was demonstrated in bone marrow derived MSCs infected by HCMV in vitro. Suppressed cytokine production, impaired cellular migration, and hindered differentiation of HCMV-infected MSCs were respectively demonstrated by lowered level of stromal cell-derived factor 1 in culture medium, decreased number of cells passed through a porous membrane in a transwell culture, and reduced differentiated cells in either adipogenic or osteogenic induction cultures. Alongside with these changes, HCMV-induced programmed cell death further contributed to the supportive failure. Autophagic cell death in infected MSCs was demonstrated as massive accumulation of vacuoles with double membrane structure and LC-3b II molecules followed by viability loss. De novo apoptosis was also observed as another process of programmed cell death, shown as increased phosphatidylserine exposure on cell surface and intracellular caspase-3 activation of infected MSCs. Increased programmed cell death appeared to be associated with extensive HCMV replication in MSCs, which was featured with typical cytopathic morphology, expression of viral tegument protein pp65, and massive accumulation of various viral particles including mature virions. Sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases likely represented a signal transduction network connecting viral expression or replication with programmed cell death. In a “MSCs-dependent” megakaryopoiesis model, HCMV-infected MSCs failed to support survival and maintenance of megakaryocytic cells. Taken together, these results suggest that active HCMV expression or replication inhibits multiple cellular functions and induces multiple processes of programmed cell death of MSCs. Such inhibition compromises supportive functions of bone marrow microenvironment, and subsequently reduces platelet production in an indirect manner. In summary, HCMV suppresses cellular function and induced apoptosis on both megakaryocytic cells and their supportive cells, MSCs. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of HCMV on megakaryopoiesis are operated via both direct and indirect mechanisms.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectCytomegaloviruses
Mesenchymal stem cells
Megakaryocytes
Dept/ProgramPaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/193520

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorChen, Jianliang-
dc.contributor.author陈健良-
dc.date.accessioned2014-01-10T09:45:57Z-
dc.date.available2014-01-10T09:45:57Z-
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.identifier.citationChen, J. [陈健良]. (2013). The inhibitory effects of human cytomegalovirus on megakaryopoiesis : megekaryocytic cells and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stormal cells. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5108669-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/193520-
dc.description.abstractThrombocytopenia is one of the most common hematologic presentations of active human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, especially in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations and newborns of congenital HCMV infection. However, mechanisms of HCMV-induced thrombocytopenia have not been well understood. The precursor of circulating platelets – megakaryocyte, is derived from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell in bone marrow. We postulate that inhibition to megakaryocytic development is the major pathogenesis of HCMV-induced thrombocytopenia. Megakaryocytic cells as well as supportive microenvironment in bone marrow are major targets of HCMV infection. Presented study mainly focused on the impacts of HCMV to megakaryocytic cells and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) - the precursor of bone marrow stromal cells. Based on a megakaryocytic cell model challenged by HCMV in vitro, inhibited megakaryocytic endomitosis, proliferation, and cellular expression were respectively demonstrated as decreased polyploidy population, decreased colony formation, and reduced c-Mpl (thrombopoietin receptor) expressing cells. Evoked apoptosis of megakaryocytic cells was also evidenced with increased phosphatidylserine exposure on cell surface and intracellular caspase-3 activation after HCMV infection. Involvement of mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptosis was further shown as losing JC-1 fluorescent signal in infected megakaryocytic cells. These results suggest that inhibition induced by HCMV is exerted through multiple processes directly affecting the megakaryopoietic development. Functional failure of bone marrow microenvironment was demonstrated in bone marrow derived MSCs infected by HCMV in vitro. Suppressed cytokine production, impaired cellular migration, and hindered differentiation of HCMV-infected MSCs were respectively demonstrated by lowered level of stromal cell-derived factor 1 in culture medium, decreased number of cells passed through a porous membrane in a transwell culture, and reduced differentiated cells in either adipogenic or osteogenic induction cultures. Alongside with these changes, HCMV-induced programmed cell death further contributed to the supportive failure. Autophagic cell death in infected MSCs was demonstrated as massive accumulation of vacuoles with double membrane structure and LC-3b II molecules followed by viability loss. De novo apoptosis was also observed as another process of programmed cell death, shown as increased phosphatidylserine exposure on cell surface and intracellular caspase-3 activation of infected MSCs. Increased programmed cell death appeared to be associated with extensive HCMV replication in MSCs, which was featured with typical cytopathic morphology, expression of viral tegument protein pp65, and massive accumulation of various viral particles including mature virions. Sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases likely represented a signal transduction network connecting viral expression or replication with programmed cell death. In a “MSCs-dependent” megakaryopoiesis model, HCMV-infected MSCs failed to support survival and maintenance of megakaryocytic cells. Taken together, these results suggest that active HCMV expression or replication inhibits multiple cellular functions and induces multiple processes of programmed cell death of MSCs. Such inhibition compromises supportive functions of bone marrow microenvironment, and subsequently reduces platelet production in an indirect manner. In summary, HCMV suppresses cellular function and induced apoptosis on both megakaryocytic cells and their supportive cells, MSCs. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of HCMV on megakaryopoiesis are operated via both direct and indirect mechanisms.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.subject.lcshCytomegaloviruses-
dc.subject.lcshMesenchymal stem cells-
dc.subject.lcshMegakaryocytes-
dc.titleThe inhibitory effects of human cytomegalovirus on megakaryopoiesis : megekaryocytic cells and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stormal cells-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5108669-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5108669-
dc.date.hkucongregation2013-

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