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postgraduate thesis: Mechanism of sorafenib resistance in FLT3-ITD⁺ acute myeloid leukemia

TitleMechanism of sorafenib resistance in FLT3-ITD⁺ acute myeloid leukemia
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Leung, AYH
Issue Date2013
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Man, C. [文卓謙]. (2013). Mechanism of sorafenib resistance in FLT3-ITD⁺ acute myeloid leukemia. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5108679
AbstractAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by an abnormal increase in myeloblasts in circulation and/or bone marrow. Internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene occurs in about 30% of AML and is associated with an inferior prognosis. Tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations occur in about 5% with uncertain prognostic significance. Intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the mainstays of treatment. However these approaches have reached a deadlock with a cure rate of 30-40%. Targeting FLT3 in AML with multi-tyrosine-kinase inhibitors has been evaluated in Phase II/III clinical trials. Despite an initial clearance of myeloblasts, the leukemia invariably progresses despite continuous treatment. The mechanisms of drug resistance and leukemia progression, hence the effective therapeutic strategies are currently unknown, limiting its clinical application. These issues were addressed in the present study. In the first part, 13 patients with chemo-refractory or relapsed FLT3-ITD+ AML received sorafenib 200-400 mg twice daily of whom 12 patients achieved clearance or near clearance of bone marrow blasts after a median of 27 days (range 21-84 days). There was evidence of myeloid differentiation of the leukemia blasts at remission. Leukemia progression occurred in 9 patients after a median of 72 days (range 54-287 days) and in 4 out of 6 patients it was dominated by clones carrying double FLT3-ITD and -TKD mutations. Microarray studies comparing myeloblasts before sorafenib treatment (sorafenib naïve) and at subsequent progression (sorafenib resistant) demonstrated up-regulation of 64 genes including ALDH1A1, JAK3 and TESC whose functions were unknown in AML. Transplantation of sorafenib naïve and resistant myeloblasts into NOD/SCID mice recapitulated their clinical behavior when the animals were treated with sorafenib. Both ITD and TKD mutations at D835 were identified in leukemia initiating cells (LICs) from sorafenib naïve samples. These results suggested that sorafenib have selected more aggressive sorafenib-resistant subclones carrying both FLT3-ITD and D835 mutations. In the second part, the gene encoding tescalcin (TESC), that was up-regulated at sorafenib resistance and was known to activate a sodium/hydrogen exchange (NHE1), was evaluated to examine its link with TKI resistance. TESC was highly expressed in FLT3-ITD+ AML cell lines MOLM-13 and MV4-11 and its knock-down by siRNA lowered intracellular pH and induced apoptosis. The results were recapitulated by treatment with a NHE1 inhibitor, 5-(N,N-Hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA). Induction of sorafenib resistance in MOLM-13 cell line (MOLM-13-RE) significantly increased its sensitivity to HMA. HMA treatment of MOLM-13 and MV4-11 as well as primary FLT3-ITD+ AML cells significantly reduced leukemia initiation in NOD/SCID mouse xenotransplantation. Normal CD34+ cells engraftment was not affected. HMA treatment significantly enhanced suppression of FLT3 signaling by sorafenib even in sorafenib resistant cell lines. These observations provided novel information about the pathogenetic role of TESC-NHE1-pHi in sorafenib resistance in AML. In conclusion, the information derived from the present study has provided mechanistic insights to the emergence of drug resistance during sorafenib treatment and important guide for future therapeutic strategies targeting FLT3-ITD+ AML.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectAcute myeloid leukemia
Drug resistance in cancer cells
Dept/ProgramMedicine
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/193461

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorLeung, AYH-
dc.contributor.authorMan, Cheuk-him-
dc.contributor.author文卓謙-
dc.date.accessioned2014-01-10T09:45:52Z-
dc.date.available2014-01-10T09:45:52Z-
dc.date.issued2013-
dc.identifier.citationMan, C. [文卓謙]. (2013). Mechanism of sorafenib resistance in FLT3-ITD⁺ acute myeloid leukemia. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5108679-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/193461-
dc.description.abstractAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by an abnormal increase in myeloblasts in circulation and/or bone marrow. Internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene occurs in about 30% of AML and is associated with an inferior prognosis. Tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations occur in about 5% with uncertain prognostic significance. Intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the mainstays of treatment. However these approaches have reached a deadlock with a cure rate of 30-40%. Targeting FLT3 in AML with multi-tyrosine-kinase inhibitors has been evaluated in Phase II/III clinical trials. Despite an initial clearance of myeloblasts, the leukemia invariably progresses despite continuous treatment. The mechanisms of drug resistance and leukemia progression, hence the effective therapeutic strategies are currently unknown, limiting its clinical application. These issues were addressed in the present study. In the first part, 13 patients with chemo-refractory or relapsed FLT3-ITD+ AML received sorafenib 200-400 mg twice daily of whom 12 patients achieved clearance or near clearance of bone marrow blasts after a median of 27 days (range 21-84 days). There was evidence of myeloid differentiation of the leukemia blasts at remission. Leukemia progression occurred in 9 patients after a median of 72 days (range 54-287 days) and in 4 out of 6 patients it was dominated by clones carrying double FLT3-ITD and -TKD mutations. Microarray studies comparing myeloblasts before sorafenib treatment (sorafenib naïve) and at subsequent progression (sorafenib resistant) demonstrated up-regulation of 64 genes including ALDH1A1, JAK3 and TESC whose functions were unknown in AML. Transplantation of sorafenib naïve and resistant myeloblasts into NOD/SCID mice recapitulated their clinical behavior when the animals were treated with sorafenib. Both ITD and TKD mutations at D835 were identified in leukemia initiating cells (LICs) from sorafenib naïve samples. These results suggested that sorafenib have selected more aggressive sorafenib-resistant subclones carrying both FLT3-ITD and D835 mutations. In the second part, the gene encoding tescalcin (TESC), that was up-regulated at sorafenib resistance and was known to activate a sodium/hydrogen exchange (NHE1), was evaluated to examine its link with TKI resistance. TESC was highly expressed in FLT3-ITD+ AML cell lines MOLM-13 and MV4-11 and its knock-down by siRNA lowered intracellular pH and induced apoptosis. The results were recapitulated by treatment with a NHE1 inhibitor, 5-(N,N-Hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA). Induction of sorafenib resistance in MOLM-13 cell line (MOLM-13-RE) significantly increased its sensitivity to HMA. HMA treatment of MOLM-13 and MV4-11 as well as primary FLT3-ITD+ AML cells significantly reduced leukemia initiation in NOD/SCID mouse xenotransplantation. Normal CD34+ cells engraftment was not affected. HMA treatment significantly enhanced suppression of FLT3 signaling by sorafenib even in sorafenib resistant cell lines. These observations provided novel information about the pathogenetic role of TESC-NHE1-pHi in sorafenib resistance in AML. In conclusion, the information derived from the present study has provided mechanistic insights to the emergence of drug resistance during sorafenib treatment and important guide for future therapeutic strategies targeting FLT3-ITD+ AML.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subject.lcshAcute myeloid leukemia-
dc.subject.lcshDrug resistance in cancer cells-
dc.titleMechanism of sorafenib resistance in FLT3-ITD⁺ acute myeloid leukemia-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5108679-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineMedicine-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5108679-
dc.date.hkucongregation2013-

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