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postgraduate thesis: Investigating biological mechanisms for the induction of autophagy in neurons stressed by beta-amyloid peptides

TitleInvestigating biological mechanisms for the induction of autophagy in neurons stressed by beta-amyloid peptides
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Zhang, Q. [张绮珊]. (2012). Investigating biological mechanisms for the induction of autophagy in neurons stressed by beta-amyloid peptides. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4961739
AbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by global cognitive decline and progressive memory loss. As many other neurological disorders characterized by “proteinopathy”, pathology of AD includes beta-amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles, which imply a crucial role of the cellular degradation systems in maintaining homeostasis of protein turnover. This is especially important for post-mitotic neuronal cells since aggravating protein crisis cannot be alleviated by cell division. Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that removes or recycles long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, with its enhancement being remarkably implicated during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The majority of studies have hitherto focused on the mechanism of how oligomeric Ah, as one of the potent toxic species in AD, activates autophagy. However, how autophagy is activated remains to be elucidated. The goal of this study is to reveal the underlying mechanisms of autophagy and the subsequent events. Using imaging and biochemical analysis in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, I found that oligomeric An-induced autophagy was initiated by aggregation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in an mTOR-independent pathway. Ao-triggered autophagosomes were derived from omegasomes, starting from the ER aggregation sites. Aggregation of the ER facilitated the clustering of Atg14L to propel the recruitment of Beclin1 and Vps34, which contributes to generation of omegasomes. I further found that p62 targeted to ER aggregates possibly through the enhanced ubiquitinated ER chaperones trapped at ER aggregation sites, implicating the underlying mechanism for how p62 are recruited to autophagosome formation sites (omegasomes). Herein, I report key steps for activation of AH-triggered autophagy, whereby a mechanistic link between ER aggregation, autophagic activation and recruitment of p62 to autophagosome formation sites is revealed. First, Ao-induced ER aggregation triggers autophagy, via the recruitment of Beclin 1 and Vps34 to Atg14L clusters, which is a promoting factor for omegasome formation at the ER aggregation site. Second, the recruitment of p62 to omegasomes is likely mediated by the attraction of the underlying accumulation of ubiquitinated ER chaperones at the ER aggregation site. Up-regulation of autophagy is an early sign of AD. The activation of autophagy without tightly manipulation may contribute to neuronal damage in AD. In addition, how the autophagic substrates can be efficiently incorporated into the autophagic pathway is important for understanding the sustainability of autophagy. Therefore, my study on elucidating how ER aggregation initiates autophagy and the autophagic substrate/cargo receptor p62 are loaded onto autophagosome formation sites may help us to identify a potential therapeutic strategy or target for AD patients.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectNeurons
Amyloid beta-protein
Autophagic vacuoles
Dept/ProgramAnatomy
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/193067

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Qishan-
dc.contributor.author张绮珊-
dc.date.accessioned2013-12-14T10:12:21Z-
dc.date.available2013-12-14T10:12:21Z-
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.identifier.citationZhang, Q. [张绮珊]. (2012). Investigating biological mechanisms for the induction of autophagy in neurons stressed by beta-amyloid peptides. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4961739-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/193067-
dc.description.abstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by global cognitive decline and progressive memory loss. As many other neurological disorders characterized by “proteinopathy”, pathology of AD includes beta-amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles, which imply a crucial role of the cellular degradation systems in maintaining homeostasis of protein turnover. This is especially important for post-mitotic neuronal cells since aggravating protein crisis cannot be alleviated by cell division. Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that removes or recycles long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, with its enhancement being remarkably implicated during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The majority of studies have hitherto focused on the mechanism of how oligomeric Ah, as one of the potent toxic species in AD, activates autophagy. However, how autophagy is activated remains to be elucidated. The goal of this study is to reveal the underlying mechanisms of autophagy and the subsequent events. Using imaging and biochemical analysis in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, I found that oligomeric An-induced autophagy was initiated by aggregation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in an mTOR-independent pathway. Ao-triggered autophagosomes were derived from omegasomes, starting from the ER aggregation sites. Aggregation of the ER facilitated the clustering of Atg14L to propel the recruitment of Beclin1 and Vps34, which contributes to generation of omegasomes. I further found that p62 targeted to ER aggregates possibly through the enhanced ubiquitinated ER chaperones trapped at ER aggregation sites, implicating the underlying mechanism for how p62 are recruited to autophagosome formation sites (omegasomes). Herein, I report key steps for activation of AH-triggered autophagy, whereby a mechanistic link between ER aggregation, autophagic activation and recruitment of p62 to autophagosome formation sites is revealed. First, Ao-induced ER aggregation triggers autophagy, via the recruitment of Beclin 1 and Vps34 to Atg14L clusters, which is a promoting factor for omegasome formation at the ER aggregation site. Second, the recruitment of p62 to omegasomes is likely mediated by the attraction of the underlying accumulation of ubiquitinated ER chaperones at the ER aggregation site. Up-regulation of autophagy is an early sign of AD. The activation of autophagy without tightly manipulation may contribute to neuronal damage in AD. In addition, how the autophagic substrates can be efficiently incorporated into the autophagic pathway is important for understanding the sustainability of autophagy. Therefore, my study on elucidating how ER aggregation initiates autophagy and the autophagic substrate/cargo receptor p62 are loaded onto autophagosome formation sites may help us to identify a potential therapeutic strategy or target for AD patients.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subject.lcshNeurons-
dc.subject.lcshAmyloid beta-protein-
dc.subject.lcshAutophagic vacuoles-
dc.titleInvestigating biological mechanisms for the induction of autophagy in neurons stressed by beta-amyloid peptides-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4961739-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineAnatomy-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4961739-
dc.date.hkucongregation2013-

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