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Article: Observation and spectral measurements of the crab nebula with Milagro

TitleObservation and spectral measurements of the crab nebula with Milagro
Authors
KeywordsAcceleration Of Particles
Astroparticle Physics
Gamma Rays: General
Pulsars: Individual (Crab Pulsar)
Issue Date2012
PublisherInstitute of Physics Publishing, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/
Citation
Astrophysical Journal, 2012, v. 750 n. 1 How to Cite?
AbstractThe Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100GeV-100TeV gamma-ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between ∼1 and ∼100TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton upscattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a TeV steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fitted. The differential photon energy spectrum, including the statistical errors from the fit, obtained using a simple power-law hypothesis for data between 2005 September and 2008 March is (6.5 ± 0.4) × 10 -14(E/10 TeV) -3.1±0.1(cm 2 s TeV ) -1 between ∼1TeV and 100TeV. Allowing for a possible exponential cutoff, the photon energy spectrum is fitted as (2.5 +0.7 - 0.4) × 10 -12(E/3 TeV) -2.5 ± 0.4exp (- E/32 +39 - 18 TeV) (cm 2 s TeV) -1. The results are subject to an 30% systematic uncertainty in the overall flux and an ∼0.1 systematic uncertainty in the power-law indices quoted. Uncertainty in the overall energy scale has been absorbed into these errors. Fixing the spectral index to values that have been measured below 1TeV by IACT experiments (2.4-2.6), the fit to the Milagro data suggests that Crab exhibits a spectral steepening or cutoff between about 20-40TeV. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/188419
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 5.909
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 3.266
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorAbdo, AAen_US
dc.contributor.authorAllen, BTen_US
dc.contributor.authorAtkins, Ren_US
dc.contributor.authorAune, Ten_US
dc.contributor.authorBenbow, Wen_US
dc.contributor.authorBerley, Den_US
dc.contributor.authorBlaufuss, Een_US
dc.contributor.authorBonamente, Een_US
dc.contributor.authorBussons, Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Cen_US
dc.contributor.authorChristopher, GEen_US
dc.contributor.authorCoyne, DGen_US
dc.contributor.authorDeyoung, Ten_US
dc.contributor.authorDingus, BLen_US
dc.contributor.authorDorfan, DEen_US
dc.contributor.authorEllsworth, RWen_US
dc.contributor.authorFalcone, Aen_US
dc.contributor.authorFleysher, Len_US
dc.contributor.authorFleysher, Ren_US
dc.contributor.authorGalbraithFrew, Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorGonzalez, MMen_US
dc.contributor.authorGoodman, JAen_US
dc.contributor.authorHaines, TJen_US
dc.contributor.authorHays, Een_US
dc.contributor.authorHoffman, CMen_US
dc.contributor.authorHüntemeyer, PHen_US
dc.contributor.authorKelley, LAen_US
dc.contributor.authorKolterman, BEen_US
dc.contributor.authorLansdell, CPen_US
dc.contributor.authorLinnemann, JTen_US
dc.contributor.authorMccullough, Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorMcenery, JEen_US
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, Ten_US
dc.contributor.authorMincer, AIen_US
dc.contributor.authorMorales, MFen_US
dc.contributor.authorNemethy, Pen_US
dc.contributor.authorNoyes, Den_US
dc.contributor.authorPretz, Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorRyan, JMen_US
dc.contributor.authorSamuelson, FWen_US
dc.contributor.authorSaz Parkinson, PMen_US
dc.contributor.authorShoup, Aen_US
dc.contributor.authorSinnis, Gen_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith, AJen_US
dc.contributor.authorSullivan, GWen_US
dc.contributor.authorVasileiou, Ven_US
dc.contributor.authorWalker, GPen_US
dc.contributor.authorWascko, Men_US
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, DAen_US
dc.contributor.authorWesterhoff, Sen_US
dc.contributor.authorYodh, GBen_US
dc.date.accessioned2013-09-03T04:05:44Z-
dc.date.available2013-09-03T04:05:44Z-
dc.date.issued2012en_US
dc.identifier.citationAstrophysical Journal, 2012, v. 750 n. 1en_US
dc.identifier.issn0004-637Xen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/188419-
dc.description.abstractThe Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100GeV-100TeV gamma-ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between ∼1 and ∼100TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton upscattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a TeV steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fitted. The differential photon energy spectrum, including the statistical errors from the fit, obtained using a simple power-law hypothesis for data between 2005 September and 2008 March is (6.5 ± 0.4) × 10 -14(E/10 TeV) -3.1±0.1(cm 2 s TeV ) -1 between ∼1TeV and 100TeV. Allowing for a possible exponential cutoff, the photon energy spectrum is fitted as (2.5 +0.7 - 0.4) × 10 -12(E/3 TeV) -2.5 ± 0.4exp (- E/32 +39 - 18 TeV) (cm 2 s TeV) -1. The results are subject to an 30% systematic uncertainty in the overall flux and an ∼0.1 systematic uncertainty in the power-law indices quoted. Uncertainty in the overall energy scale has been absorbed into these errors. Fixing the spectral index to values that have been measured below 1TeV by IACT experiments (2.4-2.6), the fit to the Milagro data suggests that Crab exhibits a spectral steepening or cutoff between about 20-40TeV. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherInstitute of Physics Publishing, Inc. The Journal's web site is located at http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/en_US
dc.relation.ispartofAstrophysical Journalen_US
dc.subjectAcceleration Of Particlesen_US
dc.subjectAstroparticle Physicsen_US
dc.subjectGamma Rays: Generalen_US
dc.subjectPulsars: Individual (Crab Pulsar)en_US
dc.titleObservation and spectral measurements of the crab nebula with Milagroen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1088/0004-637X/750/1/63en_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84859913826en_US
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-84859913826&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_US
dc.identifier.volume750en_US
dc.identifier.issue1en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000303063500063-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridAbdo, AA=35228697200en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridAllen, BT=36551088700en_US
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dc.identifier.scopusauthoridAune, T=25721802200en_US
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dc.identifier.scopusauthoridBerley, D=35236204300en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridBlaufuss, E=35236361600en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridBonamente, E=23017714200en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridBussons, J=6506619745en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChen, C=7501964942en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChristopher, GE=43360989500en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridCoyne, DG=7005444095en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridDeyoung, T=35236784600en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridDingus, BL=35313328300en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridDorfan, DE=22983036300en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridEllsworth, RW=7006640160en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridFalcone, A=36821087100en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridFleysher, L=6603281083en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridFleysher, R=6603340002en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridGalbraithFrew, J=6603965367en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridGonzalez, MM=6603930996en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridGoodman, JA=35228697200en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHaines, TJ=36551088700en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHays, E=7203037191en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHoffman, CM=25721802200en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridHüntemeyer, PH=8251232000en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKelley, LA=35236204300en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKolterman, BE=35236361600en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLansdell, CP=23017714200en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLinnemann, JT=6506619745en_US
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dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMcEnery, JE=43360989500en_US
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dc.identifier.scopusauthoridMincer, AI=35236784600en_US
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dc.identifier.scopusauthoridRyan, JM=6603281083en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSamuelson, FW=6603340002en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridSaz Parkinson, PM=55191316200en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridShoup, A=34770297100en_US
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dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWascko, M=7102318127en_US
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dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWesterhoff, S=38561715700en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridYodh, GB=35227605400en_US

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