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postgraduate thesis: Role of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in diabetes mellitus

TitleRole of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in diabetes mellitus
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Tan, KCB
Issue Date2012
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Shiu, W. S. [邵永明]. (2012). Role of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in diabetes mellitus. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5053407
AbstractLectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a recently identified scavenger receptor expressed in endothelial cells and mediates the uptake of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). LOX-1 expression is increased in atherosclerotic lesions in animals and humans. Recent evidence has suggested that LOX-1 is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In addition to endothelial cells, it has also been reported that LOX-1 is also expressed by other cell types like macrophages. It is a multi-ligand class E scavenger receptor and cellular expression of LOX-1 can be induced by many of its ligands. The concentration of some of these ligands like oxLDL and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in the diabetic milieu. My hypothesis is that LOX-1 expression is increased in diabetes mellitus and LOX-1 activation may play a role in the development of micro- and/or macrovascular complications of diabetes. The objective of this thesis is to elucidate the role of LOX-1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. The effect of modified LDL and AGEs on LOX-1 expression and the cellular response upon LOX-1 activation was investigated. In vitro studies have shown that both AGEs and oxLDL can activate and increase cellular expression of LOX-1 and the soluble form of LOX-1 (sLOX-1) in cultured endothelial cells. In addition, LDL modified by glycoxidation, is also a ligand of LOX-1 and glycoxidized LDL is even more potent than oxLDL in inducing LOX-1 expression. In patients with type 2 diabetes, serum level of sLOX-1 was significantly higher than non-diabetic normal control, indicating that LOX-1 expression was increased in diabetes. Serum levels of AGEs and glycoxidized LDL were important determinants of serum sLOX-1 level, and lowering serum AGEs led to a beneficial reduction in serum sLOX-1 concentration. Hence, AGEs was clearly an important ligand of LOX-1 in diabetes mellitus, and experiments were performed to further elucidate the underlying signaling pathway involved in the up-regulation of LOX-1 by AGEs. This was mediated by ligation of AGEs to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Mammalian target of rapamycin was a found to be a key downstream intermediary in AGEs-inducible LOX-1 expression in endothelial cells. I further demonstrated that LOX-1 was also expressed in human renal mesangial cells, and expression was at a low level at basal state but inducible by its ligands. Up-regulation of LOX-1 expression in activated mesangial cells resulted in increased oxidative stress, as well as increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. These experimental findings would suggest that LOX-1 might potentially be involved in renal inflammation and diabetic nephropathy. The above results collectively suggest that diabetes is associated with increased LOX-1 activation, and LOX-1 may play a role in the development of diabetic complications. Hence, LOX-1 might represent a suitable target for the future development of new strategies for treating and preventing diabetic vascular complications.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectDiabetes - Genetic aspects.
Low density lipoproteins - Receptors.
Dept/ProgramMedicine
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/188288

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorTan, KCB-
dc.contributor.authorShiu, Wing-ming, Sammy.-
dc.contributor.author邵永明.-
dc.date.accessioned2013-08-27T08:03:17Z-
dc.date.available2013-08-27T08:03:17Z-
dc.date.issued2012-
dc.identifier.citationShiu, W. S. [邵永明]. (2012). Role of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in diabetes mellitus. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b5053407-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/188288-
dc.description.abstractLectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a recently identified scavenger receptor expressed in endothelial cells and mediates the uptake of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). LOX-1 expression is increased in atherosclerotic lesions in animals and humans. Recent evidence has suggested that LOX-1 is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In addition to endothelial cells, it has also been reported that LOX-1 is also expressed by other cell types like macrophages. It is a multi-ligand class E scavenger receptor and cellular expression of LOX-1 can be induced by many of its ligands. The concentration of some of these ligands like oxLDL and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in the diabetic milieu. My hypothesis is that LOX-1 expression is increased in diabetes mellitus and LOX-1 activation may play a role in the development of micro- and/or macrovascular complications of diabetes. The objective of this thesis is to elucidate the role of LOX-1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. The effect of modified LDL and AGEs on LOX-1 expression and the cellular response upon LOX-1 activation was investigated. In vitro studies have shown that both AGEs and oxLDL can activate and increase cellular expression of LOX-1 and the soluble form of LOX-1 (sLOX-1) in cultured endothelial cells. In addition, LDL modified by glycoxidation, is also a ligand of LOX-1 and glycoxidized LDL is even more potent than oxLDL in inducing LOX-1 expression. In patients with type 2 diabetes, serum level of sLOX-1 was significantly higher than non-diabetic normal control, indicating that LOX-1 expression was increased in diabetes. Serum levels of AGEs and glycoxidized LDL were important determinants of serum sLOX-1 level, and lowering serum AGEs led to a beneficial reduction in serum sLOX-1 concentration. Hence, AGEs was clearly an important ligand of LOX-1 in diabetes mellitus, and experiments were performed to further elucidate the underlying signaling pathway involved in the up-regulation of LOX-1 by AGEs. This was mediated by ligation of AGEs to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Mammalian target of rapamycin was a found to be a key downstream intermediary in AGEs-inducible LOX-1 expression in endothelial cells. I further demonstrated that LOX-1 was also expressed in human renal mesangial cells, and expression was at a low level at basal state but inducible by its ligands. Up-regulation of LOX-1 expression in activated mesangial cells resulted in increased oxidative stress, as well as increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. These experimental findings would suggest that LOX-1 might potentially be involved in renal inflammation and diabetic nephropathy. The above results collectively suggest that diabetes is associated with increased LOX-1 activation, and LOX-1 may play a role in the development of diabetic complications. Hence, LOX-1 might represent a suitable target for the future development of new strategies for treating and preventing diabetic vascular complications.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B50534075-
dc.subject.lcshDiabetes - Genetic aspects.-
dc.subject.lcshLow density lipoproteins - Receptors.-
dc.titleRole of lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in diabetes mellitus-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb5053407-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineMedicine-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b5053407-
dc.date.hkucongregation2013-

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