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postgraduate thesis: Dynamic mass modification by electric circuits
Title  Dynamic mass modification by electric circuits 

Authors  
Issue Date  2012 
Publisher  The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) 
Citation  Zhang, Y. [张宇敏]. (2012). Dynamic mass modification by electric circuits. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4786947 
Abstract 
There are two concentrations in this project. One is to explore the possibility to construct negative acoustic impedance by electronic techniques, and the other is to see whether such method can be utilized to build effective sound absorber using electromagnetic actuator (here we adopt the movingcoil loudspeaker as sample) with a shunt circuit.
Our study begins with analytical analysis, and the result shows that it is impossible to gain independent control of basic acoustic impedance components (mass, stiffness and damping) by simple circuits. Two alternative designs are put forward as a compromise. One is the series circuit with NIC to simulate the negative acoustic impedance, and another is the seriesparallel circuit with NIC. Theoretical prediction shows that we can indeed obtain broadband negative mass and local negative stiffness by these two types of circuits, and that we can achieve broadband noise control with simple electronic shunt circuits despite fact that completely independent control over each parameter is not possible. We argue that these conclusions represent significant technological and economic advantage worthy of further development.
All analytical results are validated by experiments with satisfactory agreement. The sample loudspeaker with shunt circuit is tested with acoustic impedance tube. The rig consists of a DC powered opamp circuit and a loudspeaker. An efficient Matlab code controls the excitation sound generation and data acquisition with AD/DA cards.
Two typical and most interesting results are summarized here. In the first, a series type circuit with NIC is used to construct negative equivalent mass and local (banded in frequency domain) negative stiffness. We experimentally demonstrated that it is rather easy to reduce original mass of the loudspeaker to half of its original value and it could be reduced to almost zero. This is evidenced by a very flat sound absorption coefficient curve from 100 Hz to 1000 Hz.
The second circuit is a seriesparallel circuit. It’s an improved design from the first type. This type of circuit can, to a certain extent, decouple the stiffness and mass controls. The results show that we can reduce mass globally (in the frequency domain) and stiffness at low frequencies. The original mass of the sample loudspeaker is almost eliminated and the stiffness at low frequencies is reduced too. In terms of the spectrum of sound absorption coefficient, it manifests itself through a broadband absorption with prominent improvement in the low frequency region.
Finally, potential applications for our designs are discussed. A tunable low frequency resonance absorber is designed. Prediction results point out that, by choosing the right parameters of the circuit, we can achieve 100% absorption at any given low frequency. Thin absorber is another potential application. With the same dimension, the performance of a thin absorber is much better than that of the standard sound absorption construction. A 90% noise absorption from 300Hz600Hz and 50% absorption from 250Hz1000Hz is achieved by our new design. The dimension can be further reduced in theory. Finally, a broadband absorber with 50% or more absorption over 80Hz1000Hz is demonstrated. 
Degree  Master of Philosophy 
Subject  Acoustic impedance. Absorption of sound. Actuators. Electric circuits. 
Dept/Program  Mechanical Engineering 
Persistent Identifier  http://hdl.handle.net/10722/183641 
HKU Library Item ID  b4786947 
DC Field  Value  Language 

dc.contributor.author  Zhang, Yumin   
dc.contributor.author  张宇敏   
dc.date.accessioned  20130608T16:00:11Z   
dc.date.available  20130608T16:00:11Z   
dc.date.issued  2012   
dc.identifier.citation  Zhang, Y. [张宇敏]. (2012). Dynamic mass modification by electric circuits. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4786947   
dc.identifier.uri  http://hdl.handle.net/10722/183641   
dc.description.abstract  There are two concentrations in this project. One is to explore the possibility to construct negative acoustic impedance by electronic techniques, and the other is to see whether such method can be utilized to build effective sound absorber using electromagnetic actuator (here we adopt the movingcoil loudspeaker as sample) with a shunt circuit. Our study begins with analytical analysis, and the result shows that it is impossible to gain independent control of basic acoustic impedance components (mass, stiffness and damping) by simple circuits. Two alternative designs are put forward as a compromise. One is the series circuit with NIC to simulate the negative acoustic impedance, and another is the seriesparallel circuit with NIC. Theoretical prediction shows that we can indeed obtain broadband negative mass and local negative stiffness by these two types of circuits, and that we can achieve broadband noise control with simple electronic shunt circuits despite fact that completely independent control over each parameter is not possible. We argue that these conclusions represent significant technological and economic advantage worthy of further development. All analytical results are validated by experiments with satisfactory agreement. The sample loudspeaker with shunt circuit is tested with acoustic impedance tube. The rig consists of a DC powered opamp circuit and a loudspeaker. An efficient Matlab code controls the excitation sound generation and data acquisition with AD/DA cards. Two typical and most interesting results are summarized here. In the first, a series type circuit with NIC is used to construct negative equivalent mass and local (banded in frequency domain) negative stiffness. We experimentally demonstrated that it is rather easy to reduce original mass of the loudspeaker to half of its original value and it could be reduced to almost zero. This is evidenced by a very flat sound absorption coefficient curve from 100 Hz to 1000 Hz. The second circuit is a seriesparallel circuit. It’s an improved design from the first type. This type of circuit can, to a certain extent, decouple the stiffness and mass controls. The results show that we can reduce mass globally (in the frequency domain) and stiffness at low frequencies. The original mass of the sample loudspeaker is almost eliminated and the stiffness at low frequencies is reduced too. In terms of the spectrum of sound absorption coefficient, it manifests itself through a broadband absorption with prominent improvement in the low frequency region. Finally, potential applications for our designs are discussed. A tunable low frequency resonance absorber is designed. Prediction results point out that, by choosing the right parameters of the circuit, we can achieve 100% absorption at any given low frequency. Thin absorber is another potential application. With the same dimension, the performance of a thin absorber is much better than that of the standard sound absorption construction. A 90% noise absorption from 300Hz600Hz and 50% absorption from 250Hz1000Hz is achieved by our new design. The dimension can be further reduced in theory. Finally, a broadband absorber with 50% or more absorption over 80Hz1000Hz is demonstrated.   
dc.language  eng   
dc.publisher  The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)   
dc.relation.ispartof  HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)   
dc.rights  The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.   
dc.rights  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialNoDerivatives 4.0 International License.   
dc.source.uri  http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47869471   
dc.subject.lcsh  Acoustic impedance.   
dc.subject.lcsh  Absorption of sound.   
dc.subject.lcsh  Actuators.   
dc.subject.lcsh  Electric circuits.   
dc.title  Dynamic mass modification by electric circuits   
dc.type  PG_Thesis   
dc.identifier.hkul  b4786947   
dc.description.thesisname  Master of Philosophy   
dc.description.thesislevel  Master   
dc.description.thesisdiscipline  Mechanical Engineering   
dc.description.nature  published_or_final_version   
dc.identifier.doi  10.5353/th_b4786947   
dc.date.hkucongregation  2012   