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postgraduate thesis: Isolation and characterization of cancer stem cells in non-small cell lung cancer

TitleIsolation and characterization of cancer stem cells in non-small cell lung cancer
Authors
Issue Date2011
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Wong, K. S. [王傑民]. (2011). Isolation and characterization of cancer stem cells in non-small cell lung cancer. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4725066
AbstractTumor heterogeneity has long been observed and recognized as a challenge to cancer therapy. The cancer stem cell (CSC) model is one of the hypotheses proposed to explain such a phenomenon. A specific cancer stem cell marker has not been determined for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), preventing the definitive evaluation of whether the biology of NSCLC is governed by the CSC model. This study aimed to analyze the expression of candidate CSC markers and using the identified putative marker, to isolate CSC and determine the applicability of the CSC model in NSCLC. The expression or activities of four putative stem cell markers, CD24, CD44, CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) were measured by flow cytometry in eight NSCLC cell lines before and after chemotherapy for 24 hours. Markers with increased expression after treatment were considered potential CSC markers and used for isolating tumor cell subpopulations from the untreated cell lines by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Confirmatory analyses using widely acceptable methodology were performed to test for CSC properties in the marker+ and marker- subpopulations. Isolated subpopulations were further characterized by functional and phenotypic studies. Flow cytometry showed amongst the 4 markers, only ALDH1 expression was significantly enhanced by chemotherapeutic treatment, suggesting ALDH1 could be a CSC marker. Untreated ALDH1+ cells formed significantly more and larger cell spheres in non-adherent, serum-free conditions than ALDH1- cells. Likewise, higher in vitro tumorigenic ability was observed in ALDH1+ subset using colony formation assay. Furthermore, a higher resistance to cytotoxic drugs was observed in ALDH1+ compared to ALDH1- cells. In vivo studies also showed ALDH1+ cells showed higher tumorigenicity than ALDH1- cells; as few as 2,500 ALDH1+ cells formed tumor in SCID mice which were serially transplantable to 2nd and 3rd recipients, while no tumor was formed from ALDH- cells with even ten times the number of cells. Also, expression analysis revealed higher expression of the pluripotency genes, OCT4, NANOG, BMI1 and SOX9, in ALDH1+ cells. In view of previous studies reporting CD44 as a CSC marker in lung cancer, double marker selection of putative CSC was performed to compare ALDH1+CD44+ and ALDH1-CD44+ subpopulations. Results of the spheroid body formation assay and cisplatin treatment experiments revealed the ALDH1+CD44+ subpopulation possessed higher self-renewal ability and chemo-resistance. Cell migration and invasion assays showed differences between the ALDH1+CD44+ and ALDH1- CD44+ subpopulations. The significance of these observations require further investigation. In conclusion, the result showed that ALDH1 could be a marker for NSCLC stem cells as evidenced by enhanced self-renewal and differentiation abilities in ALDH1+ subpopulation. Furthermore, this study observed the presence of at least two potential stem cell subpopulations in NSCLC cells with differential selfrenewal, chemotherapy resistance and cell mobility properties. Further investigations are required to validate these observations and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Better understanding of these issues would help to solve the challenges brought by tumor heterogeneity in lung cancer therapy.
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
SubjectLungs - Cancer - Molecular aspects.
Cancer cells.
Stem cells.
Dept/ProgramPathology

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorWong, Kit-man, Sunny.-
dc.contributor.author王傑民.-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.identifier.citationWong, K. S. [王傑民]. (2011). Isolation and characterization of cancer stem cells in non-small cell lung cancer. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4725066-
dc.description.abstractTumor heterogeneity has long been observed and recognized as a challenge to cancer therapy. The cancer stem cell (CSC) model is one of the hypotheses proposed to explain such a phenomenon. A specific cancer stem cell marker has not been determined for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), preventing the definitive evaluation of whether the biology of NSCLC is governed by the CSC model. This study aimed to analyze the expression of candidate CSC markers and using the identified putative marker, to isolate CSC and determine the applicability of the CSC model in NSCLC. The expression or activities of four putative stem cell markers, CD24, CD44, CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) were measured by flow cytometry in eight NSCLC cell lines before and after chemotherapy for 24 hours. Markers with increased expression after treatment were considered potential CSC markers and used for isolating tumor cell subpopulations from the untreated cell lines by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Confirmatory analyses using widely acceptable methodology were performed to test for CSC properties in the marker+ and marker- subpopulations. Isolated subpopulations were further characterized by functional and phenotypic studies. Flow cytometry showed amongst the 4 markers, only ALDH1 expression was significantly enhanced by chemotherapeutic treatment, suggesting ALDH1 could be a CSC marker. Untreated ALDH1+ cells formed significantly more and larger cell spheres in non-adherent, serum-free conditions than ALDH1- cells. Likewise, higher in vitro tumorigenic ability was observed in ALDH1+ subset using colony formation assay. Furthermore, a higher resistance to cytotoxic drugs was observed in ALDH1+ compared to ALDH1- cells. In vivo studies also showed ALDH1+ cells showed higher tumorigenicity than ALDH1- cells; as few as 2,500 ALDH1+ cells formed tumor in SCID mice which were serially transplantable to 2nd and 3rd recipients, while no tumor was formed from ALDH- cells with even ten times the number of cells. Also, expression analysis revealed higher expression of the pluripotency genes, OCT4, NANOG, BMI1 and SOX9, in ALDH1+ cells. In view of previous studies reporting CD44 as a CSC marker in lung cancer, double marker selection of putative CSC was performed to compare ALDH1+CD44+ and ALDH1-CD44+ subpopulations. Results of the spheroid body formation assay and cisplatin treatment experiments revealed the ALDH1+CD44+ subpopulation possessed higher self-renewal ability and chemo-resistance. Cell migration and invasion assays showed differences between the ALDH1+CD44+ and ALDH1- CD44+ subpopulations. The significance of these observations require further investigation. In conclusion, the result showed that ALDH1 could be a marker for NSCLC stem cells as evidenced by enhanced self-renewal and differentiation abilities in ALDH1+ subpopulation. Furthermore, this study observed the presence of at least two potential stem cell subpopulations in NSCLC cells with differential selfrenewal, chemotherapy resistance and cell mobility properties. Further investigations are required to validate these observations and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Better understanding of these issues would help to solve the challenges brought by tumor heterogeneity in lung cancer therapy.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47250665-
dc.subject.lcshLungs - Cancer - Molecular aspects.-
dc.subject.lcshCancer cells.-
dc.subject.lcshStem cells.-
dc.titleIsolation and characterization of cancer stem cells in non-small cell lung cancer-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4725066-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePathology-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4725066-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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