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Article: On the formation of carbon stars

TitleOn the formation of carbon stars
Authors
KeywordsStars: Carbon
Stars: Circumstellar Shells
Stars: Evolution
Stars: Mass Loss
Issue Date1990
PublisherInstitute of Physics Publishing Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X
Citation
The Astrophysical Journal, 1990, v. 365 n. 1, p. 301-311 How to Cite?
AbstractWe present an integrated model of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution, using empirical formulae to allow for nuclear shell burning in the core, the dredge-up of heavy elements to the envelope, and mass loss from the surface. We emphasize the role of mass loss in the formation of carbon stars. The formation rate of carbon stars, for an assumed constant dredge-up every thermal pulse, is critically dependent on the mass-loss formula. The observed luminosity distribution of AGB stars, the initial-final mass relationship, the oxygen-rich-to-carbon-rich star ratio, and the total population of carbon stars can be reproduced by a new proposed mass-loss formula based upon the Reimers formula but with an initial mass- [M *(0)] dependent η value (η = 0.2875[M *(0) 2-10.6M *(0) + 10.2]). For initial masses between 1.25 and 8 M ⊙, our best fit is obtained with a carbon dredge-up of ∼6% by mass each thermal pulse. The observed data are, however, not consistent with any of the "superwind" mass-loss formulae where most of the envelope mass is removed near the end of the AGB. We also find that carbon stars primarily descended from a low-mass (<3 M ⊙) population, and high-mass (3-8 M ⊙) stars remain oxygen-rich for most of their AGB lifetime.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/179632
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 5.909
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 3.266

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorBryan, GLen_US
dc.contributor.authorVolk, Ken_US
dc.contributor.authorKwok, Sen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-12-19T10:02:10Z-
dc.date.available2012-12-19T10:02:10Z-
dc.date.issued1990en_US
dc.identifier.citationThe Astrophysical Journal, 1990, v. 365 n. 1, p. 301-311en_US
dc.identifier.issn0004-637Xen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/179632-
dc.description.abstractWe present an integrated model of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution, using empirical formulae to allow for nuclear shell burning in the core, the dredge-up of heavy elements to the envelope, and mass loss from the surface. We emphasize the role of mass loss in the formation of carbon stars. The formation rate of carbon stars, for an assumed constant dredge-up every thermal pulse, is critically dependent on the mass-loss formula. The observed luminosity distribution of AGB stars, the initial-final mass relationship, the oxygen-rich-to-carbon-rich star ratio, and the total population of carbon stars can be reproduced by a new proposed mass-loss formula based upon the Reimers formula but with an initial mass- [M *(0)] dependent η value (η = 0.2875[M *(0) 2-10.6M *(0) + 10.2]). For initial masses between 1.25 and 8 M ⊙, our best fit is obtained with a carbon dredge-up of ∼6% by mass each thermal pulse. The observed data are, however, not consistent with any of the "superwind" mass-loss formulae where most of the envelope mass is removed near the end of the AGB. We also find that carbon stars primarily descended from a low-mass (<3 M ⊙) population, and high-mass (3-8 M ⊙) stars remain oxygen-rich for most of their AGB lifetime.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherInstitute of Physics Publishing Ltd. The Journal's web site is located at http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637Xen_US
dc.relation.ispartofThe Astrophysical Journalen_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.subjectStars: Carbonen_US
dc.subjectStars: Circumstellar Shellsen_US
dc.subjectStars: Evolutionen_US
dc.subjectStars: Mass Lossen_US
dc.titleOn the formation of carbon starsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailKwok, S: deannote@hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityKwok, S=rp00716en_US
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_versionen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1086/169483-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0000305267en_US
dc.identifier.volume365en_US
dc.identifier.issue1en_US
dc.identifier.spage301en_US
dc.identifier.epage311en_US
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridBryan, GL=7102268958en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridVolk, K=7006571965en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKwok, S=22980498300en_US

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