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Conference Paper: The environmental impact of marine fish culture: Towards a sustainable future

TitleThe environmental impact of marine fish culture: Towards a sustainable future
Authors
Issue Date1995
PublisherPergamon. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/marpolbul
Citation
Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1995, v. 31 n. 4-12, p. 159-166 How to Cite?
AbstractThe environmental impact of marine fish-farming depends very much on species, culture method, stocking density, feed type, hydrography of the site and husbandry practices. In general, some 85% of phosphorus, 80-88% of carbon and 52-95% of nitrogen input into a marine fish culture system as feed may be lost into the environment through feed wastage, fish excretion, faeces production and respiration. Cleaning of fouled cages may also add an organic loading to the water, albeit periodically. Problems caused by high organic and nutrient loadings conflict with other uses of the coastal zone. The use of chemicals (therapeutants, vitamins and antifoulants) and the introduction of pathogens and new genetic strains have also raised environmental concerns. Despite the high pollution loadings, results from various studies show that some 23% of C, 21% of N and 53% of P of feed input into the culture system is being accumulated in the bottom sediments and the significant impact is normally confined to within 1 km of the farm. The major impact is on the sea bottom, where high sediment oxygen demand, anoxic sediments, production of toxic gases and a decrease in benthic diversity may result. Decreases in dissolved oxygen and increases in nutrient levels in the water are also evident but are normally confined to the vicinity of the farm. Tributyltin (TBT) contamination and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been reported near fish farms. The stimulating effects of vitamins/fish wastes on growth of red tide species have been demonstrated in a number of laboratory studies. Nevertheless, there is no evidence to support the suggestion that the present use of therapeutants, vitamins and antibiotics and the introduction of pathogens and new genetic strains would pose a significant threat to the environment. Marine fish culture can be a sustainable development, provided pollution loadings generated by fish farms are kept well below the carrying capacity of the water body. Effects can be significantly reduced by careful site selection, control of stock density, improved feed formulation and integrated culture (with macroalgae, biter-feeders and deposit-feeders). An example of the application of computer modelling in mariculture management is demonstrated, Environmental impact assessment and monitoring should also be carried out to ensure culture activities are environmentally sustainable.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/179574
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 3.099
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.264
ISI Accession Number ID

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorWu, RSSen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-12-19T09:59:56Z-
dc.date.available2012-12-19T09:59:56Z-
dc.date.issued1995en_US
dc.identifier.citationMarine Pollution Bulletin, 1995, v. 31 n. 4-12, p. 159-166en_US
dc.identifier.issn0025-326Xen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/179574-
dc.description.abstractThe environmental impact of marine fish-farming depends very much on species, culture method, stocking density, feed type, hydrography of the site and husbandry practices. In general, some 85% of phosphorus, 80-88% of carbon and 52-95% of nitrogen input into a marine fish culture system as feed may be lost into the environment through feed wastage, fish excretion, faeces production and respiration. Cleaning of fouled cages may also add an organic loading to the water, albeit periodically. Problems caused by high organic and nutrient loadings conflict with other uses of the coastal zone. The use of chemicals (therapeutants, vitamins and antifoulants) and the introduction of pathogens and new genetic strains have also raised environmental concerns. Despite the high pollution loadings, results from various studies show that some 23% of C, 21% of N and 53% of P of feed input into the culture system is being accumulated in the bottom sediments and the significant impact is normally confined to within 1 km of the farm. The major impact is on the sea bottom, where high sediment oxygen demand, anoxic sediments, production of toxic gases and a decrease in benthic diversity may result. Decreases in dissolved oxygen and increases in nutrient levels in the water are also evident but are normally confined to the vicinity of the farm. Tributyltin (TBT) contamination and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been reported near fish farms. The stimulating effects of vitamins/fish wastes on growth of red tide species have been demonstrated in a number of laboratory studies. Nevertheless, there is no evidence to support the suggestion that the present use of therapeutants, vitamins and antibiotics and the introduction of pathogens and new genetic strains would pose a significant threat to the environment. Marine fish culture can be a sustainable development, provided pollution loadings generated by fish farms are kept well below the carrying capacity of the water body. Effects can be significantly reduced by careful site selection, control of stock density, improved feed formulation and integrated culture (with macroalgae, biter-feeders and deposit-feeders). An example of the application of computer modelling in mariculture management is demonstrated, Environmental impact assessment and monitoring should also be carried out to ensure culture activities are environmentally sustainable.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherPergamon. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/marpolbulen_US
dc.relation.ispartofMarine Pollution Bulletinen_US
dc.titleThe environmental impact of marine fish culture: Towards a sustainable futureen_US
dc.typeConference_Paperen_US
dc.identifier.emailWu, RSS: rudolfwu@hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityWu, RSS=rp01398en_US
dc.description.naturelink_to_subscribed_fulltexten_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/0025-326X(95)00100-2en_US
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-0029416228en_US
dc.identifier.volume31en_US
dc.identifier.issue4-12en_US
dc.identifier.spage159en_US
dc.identifier.epage166en_US
dc.identifier.isiWOS:A1995TM84200004-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Kingdomen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridWu, RSS=7402945079en_US

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