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Article: Agnathan VIP, PACAP and Their Receptors: Ancestral Origins of Today's Highly Diversified Forms

TitleAgnathan VIP, PACAP and Their Receptors: Ancestral Origins of Today's Highly Diversified Forms
Authors
Issue Date2012
PublisherPublic Library of Science. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.plosone.org/home.action
Citation
Plos One, 2012, v. 7 n. 9, article no. e44691 How to Cite?
AbstractVIP and PACAP are pleiotropic peptides belonging to the secretin superfamily of brain-gut peptides and interact specifically with three receptors (VPAC 1, PAC 1 and VPAC 2) from the class II B G protein-coupled receptor family. There is immense interest regarding their molecular evolution which is often described closely alongside gene and/or genome duplications. Despite the wide array of information available in various vertebrates and one invertebrate the tunicate, their evolutionary origins remain unresolved. Through searches of genome databases and molecular cloning techniques, the first lamprey VIP/PACAP ligands and VPAC receptors are identified from the Japanese lamprey. In addition, two VPAC receptors (VPACa/b) are identified from inshore hagfish and ligands predicted for sea lamprey. Phylogenetic analyses group these molecules into their respective PHI/VIP, PRP/PACAP and VPAC receptor families and show they resemble ancestral forms. Japanese lamprey VIP/PACAP peptides synthesized were tested with the hagfish VPAC receptors. hfVPACa transduces signal via both adenylyl cylase and phospholipase C pathways, whilst hfVPACb was only able to transduce through the calcium pathway. In contrast to the widespread distribution of VIP/PACAP ligands and receptors in many species, the agnathan PACAP and VPAC receptors were found almost exclusively in the brain. In situ hybridisation further showed their abundance throughout the brain. The range of VIP/PACAP ligands and receptors found are highly useful, providing a glimpse into the evolutionary events both at the structural and functional levels. Though representative of ancestral forms, the VIP/PACAP ligands in particular have retained high sequence conservation indicating the importance of their functions even early in vertebrate evolution. During these nascent stages, only two VPAC receptors are likely responsible for eliciting functions before evolving later into specific subtypes post-Agnatha. We also propose VIP and PACAP's first functions to predominate in the brain, evolving alongside the central nervous system, subsequently establishing peripheral functions. © 2012 Ng et al.
Persistent Identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/179307
ISSN
2015 Impact Factor: 3.057
2015 SCImago Journal Rankings: 1.395
PubMed Central ID
ISI Accession Number ID
References

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorNg, SYLen_US
dc.contributor.authorChow, BKCen_US
dc.contributor.authorKasamatsu, Jen_US
dc.contributor.authorKasahara, Men_US
dc.contributor.authorLee, LTOen_US
dc.date.accessioned2012-12-19T09:54:01Z-
dc.date.available2012-12-19T09:54:01Z-
dc.date.issued2012en_US
dc.identifier.citationPlos One, 2012, v. 7 n. 9, article no. e44691en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10722/179307-
dc.description.abstractVIP and PACAP are pleiotropic peptides belonging to the secretin superfamily of brain-gut peptides and interact specifically with three receptors (VPAC 1, PAC 1 and VPAC 2) from the class II B G protein-coupled receptor family. There is immense interest regarding their molecular evolution which is often described closely alongside gene and/or genome duplications. Despite the wide array of information available in various vertebrates and one invertebrate the tunicate, their evolutionary origins remain unresolved. Through searches of genome databases and molecular cloning techniques, the first lamprey VIP/PACAP ligands and VPAC receptors are identified from the Japanese lamprey. In addition, two VPAC receptors (VPACa/b) are identified from inshore hagfish and ligands predicted for sea lamprey. Phylogenetic analyses group these molecules into their respective PHI/VIP, PRP/PACAP and VPAC receptor families and show they resemble ancestral forms. Japanese lamprey VIP/PACAP peptides synthesized were tested with the hagfish VPAC receptors. hfVPACa transduces signal via both adenylyl cylase and phospholipase C pathways, whilst hfVPACb was only able to transduce through the calcium pathway. In contrast to the widespread distribution of VIP/PACAP ligands and receptors in many species, the agnathan PACAP and VPAC receptors were found almost exclusively in the brain. In situ hybridisation further showed their abundance throughout the brain. The range of VIP/PACAP ligands and receptors found are highly useful, providing a glimpse into the evolutionary events both at the structural and functional levels. Though representative of ancestral forms, the VIP/PACAP ligands in particular have retained high sequence conservation indicating the importance of their functions even early in vertebrate evolution. During these nascent stages, only two VPAC receptors are likely responsible for eliciting functions before evolving later into specific subtypes post-Agnatha. We also propose VIP and PACAP's first functions to predominate in the brain, evolving alongside the central nervous system, subsequently establishing peripheral functions. © 2012 Ng et al.en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science. The Journal's web site is located at http://www.plosone.org/home.actionen_US
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS ONEen_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.titleAgnathan VIP, PACAP and Their Receptors: Ancestral Origins of Today's Highly Diversified Formsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.emailChow, BKC: bkcc@hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.emailLee, LTO: ltolee2@hkucc.hku.hken_US
dc.identifier.authorityChow, BKC=rp00681en_US
dc.identifier.authorityLee, LTO=rp00727en_US
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_versionen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0044691en_US
dc.identifier.pmid22957100-
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3434177-
dc.identifier.scopuseid_2-s2.0-84866016433en_US
dc.identifier.hkuros220048-
dc.identifier.hkuros261975-
dc.relation.referenceshttp://www.scopus.com/mlt/select.url?eid=2-s2.0-84866016433&selection=ref&src=s&origin=recordpageen_US
dc.identifier.volume7en_US
dc.identifier.issue9en_US
dc.identifier.spagearticle no. e44691-
dc.identifier.epagearticle no. e44691-
dc.identifier.eissn1932-6203-
dc.identifier.isiWOS:000308463800093-
dc.publisher.placeUnited Statesen_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridNg, SYL=36499721800en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridChow, BKC=7102826193en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKasamatsu, J=8623369800en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridKasahara, M=55273346300en_US
dc.identifier.scopusauthoridLee, LTO=8367269000en_US

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