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postgraduate thesis: Characterizations of antigenic and receptor binding properties of avian H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses

TitleCharacterizations of antigenic and receptor binding properties of avian H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses
Authors
Issue Date2011
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Lau, S. [劉韶瑩]. (2011). Characterizations of antigenic and receptor binding properties of avian H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4716507
AbstractAvian H5N1 viruses have perpetuated in poultry and caused sporadic human transmission since 1997. Vaccine candidates for the potential pandemic caused by H5N1 viruses have been continuously updated by World Health Organization. Multiple genetic lineages of H5N1 viruses which co-circulate and rapidly evolve in different regions, together with periodic population replacement of newly emerged genetic and antigenic variants in the field, pose great challenge for H5N1 vaccine candidate selection. The complexity of avian H5N1 viruses evolution raises an important issue for studying antigenic properties and also for projecting antigenic trend of this virus since the model established for the seasonal influenza viruses may not apply to H5N1 viruses which they are still in the animal phase. In contrast, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses have established as another seasonal influenza viruses in humans. How will this swine originated viruses evolve genetically and antigenically in humans? For the first in human history, we are able to track the changes of pandemic viruses from the very beginning when they transmitted to human. This study focuses on antigenic and receptor binding properties of avian H5N1 viruses from 1997 to 2010 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses from 2009 to 2011. It is found that avian H5N1 viruses continue to display highly diverse antigenic profile. The newly emerged H5N1 virus variants of clade 2.3.4 in 2008 and clade 2.3.2 in 2010 exhibit distinct antigenic properties as compared to the genetically similar viruses that were characterized previously. Receptor binding analysis showed H5N1 viruses still exhibit binding preference for avian type receptor. However, analysis of escape mutants selected from H5N1 viruses exposed to H5 monoclonal antibodies in cell based assay indicates that mutations in the conserved sites may cause switch of receptor binding specificity to human type or dual specificity for both human and avian. Based on antigenic and receptor binding analyses, it is found that the 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses isolated from 2009 to 2011 are relatively stable. Most of the antigenic variants to monoclonal antibodies are transient and not able to become prevalent. It remains to be investigated if more significant antigenic variants may emerge in the coming seasons when population immunity prevails this virus. In conclusion, this study showed that clade 2.3 avian H5N1 viruses become increasingly antigenic distinct as compared to clade 2.1 and 2.2 viruses. Antigenic variation in antigenic sites may change receptor binding specificity in avian H5N1 viruses. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses remain stable up to date but continue monitoring in coming seasons is necessary.
DegreeMaster of Philosophy
SubjectAvian influenza A virus.
Influenza A virus.
Dept/ProgramMicrobiology

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLau, Siu-ying.-
dc.contributor.author劉韶瑩.-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.identifier.citationLau, S. [劉韶瑩]. (2011). Characterizations of antigenic and receptor binding properties of avian H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4716507-
dc.description.abstractAvian H5N1 viruses have perpetuated in poultry and caused sporadic human transmission since 1997. Vaccine candidates for the potential pandemic caused by H5N1 viruses have been continuously updated by World Health Organization. Multiple genetic lineages of H5N1 viruses which co-circulate and rapidly evolve in different regions, together with periodic population replacement of newly emerged genetic and antigenic variants in the field, pose great challenge for H5N1 vaccine candidate selection. The complexity of avian H5N1 viruses evolution raises an important issue for studying antigenic properties and also for projecting antigenic trend of this virus since the model established for the seasonal influenza viruses may not apply to H5N1 viruses which they are still in the animal phase. In contrast, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses have established as another seasonal influenza viruses in humans. How will this swine originated viruses evolve genetically and antigenically in humans? For the first in human history, we are able to track the changes of pandemic viruses from the very beginning when they transmitted to human. This study focuses on antigenic and receptor binding properties of avian H5N1 viruses from 1997 to 2010 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses from 2009 to 2011. It is found that avian H5N1 viruses continue to display highly diverse antigenic profile. The newly emerged H5N1 virus variants of clade 2.3.4 in 2008 and clade 2.3.2 in 2010 exhibit distinct antigenic properties as compared to the genetically similar viruses that were characterized previously. Receptor binding analysis showed H5N1 viruses still exhibit binding preference for avian type receptor. However, analysis of escape mutants selected from H5N1 viruses exposed to H5 monoclonal antibodies in cell based assay indicates that mutations in the conserved sites may cause switch of receptor binding specificity to human type or dual specificity for both human and avian. Based on antigenic and receptor binding analyses, it is found that the 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses isolated from 2009 to 2011 are relatively stable. Most of the antigenic variants to monoclonal antibodies are transient and not able to become prevalent. It remains to be investigated if more significant antigenic variants may emerge in the coming seasons when population immunity prevails this virus. In conclusion, this study showed that clade 2.3 avian H5N1 viruses become increasingly antigenic distinct as compared to clade 2.1 and 2.2 viruses. Antigenic variation in antigenic sites may change receptor binding specificity in avian H5N1 viruses. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses remain stable up to date but continue monitoring in coming seasons is necessary.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47165078-
dc.subject.lcshAvian influenza A virus.-
dc.subject.lcshInfluenza A virus.-
dc.titleCharacterizations of antigenic and receptor binding properties of avian H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4716507-
dc.description.thesisnameMaster of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelMaster-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineMicrobiology-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4716507-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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