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postgraduate thesis: Asymmetric reactions induced by phase-tagged phosphoric acid organocatalysts and copper hydride-catalyzed reductions of unsaturatedthioesters

TitleAsymmetric reactions induced by phase-tagged phosphoric acid organocatalysts and copper hydride-catalyzed reductions of unsaturatedthioesters
Authors
Advisors
Advisor(s):Chiu, P
Issue Date2011
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Ou, J. [欧军]. (2011). Asymmetric reactions induced by phase-tagged phosphoric acid organocatalysts and copper hydride-catalyzed reductions of unsaturated thioesters. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4784970
AbstractTwo syntheses of non-cross-linked polystyrene-supported TADDOL-based phosphoric acid organocatalyst have been developed. The optimal polymer-supported catalyst 2.29d exhibited comparable catalytic activity to its small molecule counterpart in asymmetric Mannich-type reactions, and the syntheses of several chiral β-amino esters were demonstrated using 2.29d as catalyst. However, when this TADDOL-based phosphoric acid was immobilized on a polystyrene cross-linked with 1,4-bis(4-vinylphenoxy)butane, ie. JandaJelTM, the catalytic activity diminished in the first recycling and reuse of the catalyst. Building on the success of the immobilization of chiral phosphoric acid, a more robust phase-tagged BINOL-based phosphoric acid organocatalyst was developed. By taking advantage of a tetraarylphosphonium salt as a solubility-controlling group, a widely-used BINOL-based phosphoric acid, TRIP (3.1), was introduced onto a tetraphenylphosphonium salt to produce a phosphonium salt-tagged phosphoric acid catalyst 3.3e. After systematic optimizations of reaction conditions, it was found that the catalyst 3.3e with PF6 as counteranion exhibited the best performance in terms of enantioselectivity. Catalyst 3.3e was proved to be highly effective in asymmetric Friedel-Crafts reaction of indoles because it was shown to be recyclable and reusable after six cycles without loss of catalytic activity. Based on our previous studies on the reduction of unsaturated thioesters catalyzed by (BDP)CuH, further investigation of ligand effects revealed that in addition to BDP, dppf was also an effective ligand for the simple reduction of 5.8. In the stoichiometric reduction of unsaturated thioester 5.8, dppe and dppf were both efficient ligands for copper hydride that could convert 5.8 to aldehyde 5.18 in the presence of TMSCl, without the formation of the undesired enol ester 5.17, which was a major product when stoichiometric amounts of Stryker’s reagent was employed. When 5.30 bearing both a saturated and unsaturated thioester was reduced under these conditions, only the enethioate functional group underwent reaction to yield the mono-reduced product 5.31 while the saturated thioester functional group remained inert. The desymmetrizing reductive aldol reactions of symmetrical keto-enethioates 6.19, 6.22, 6.24 and 6.26 catalyzed by in situ generated chiral copper hydride were investigated. After a screening of the reaction conditions, TaniaPhos L8 was found to be the most effective chiral ligand to achieve high ee and yields. Under the optimum reaction condition (5 mol% Cu(OAc)-H2O and L8 with 2.0 eq. PhSiH3), a range of keto-enethioates smoothly underwent desymmetrizing reductive aldol cyclizations, offering bicyclic or polycyclic β-hydroxythioesters (6.28a-6.32a, 6.37a-6.47a) in 35- 84% yield and 30-97% ee with high diastereoselectivity. The addition of 5 mol% of bipyridine as additive resulted in an accelerated reaction rate in all of the reductions of keto-enethioates. The crystal structure of the L8-copper bromide complex allowed the rationalization of the major enantiomer (eg. 6.48a), in which all of the substituents are cis, to be a result of a reductively generated (Z)-thioester enolate reacting through a Zimmerman-Traxler transition state. This stereochemical outcome is in contrast to the reduction of the analogous oxoesters, which yield trans β-hydroxyesters, (eg. 6.54b), as the major products. Several proposals to explain the divergent stereochemistry, including the predominance of a Zimmerman-Traxler transition state of (E)-enolates or subsequent retroaldol rearrangements, were discussed. The retroaldol rearrangement has been observed in the conversion of 6.48a to 6.57c, in which there was retention of the configuration at C5 and a perfect conservation of enantiomeric purity.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectAsymmetric synthesis.
Catalysis.
Organic compounds - Synthesis.
Dept/ProgramChemistry

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.advisorChiu, P-
dc.contributor.authorOu, Jun-
dc.contributor.author欧军-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.identifier.citationOu, J. [欧军]. (2011). Asymmetric reactions induced by phase-tagged phosphoric acid organocatalysts and copper hydride-catalyzed reductions of unsaturated thioesters. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4784970-
dc.description.abstractTwo syntheses of non-cross-linked polystyrene-supported TADDOL-based phosphoric acid organocatalyst have been developed. The optimal polymer-supported catalyst 2.29d exhibited comparable catalytic activity to its small molecule counterpart in asymmetric Mannich-type reactions, and the syntheses of several chiral β-amino esters were demonstrated using 2.29d as catalyst. However, when this TADDOL-based phosphoric acid was immobilized on a polystyrene cross-linked with 1,4-bis(4-vinylphenoxy)butane, ie. JandaJelTM, the catalytic activity diminished in the first recycling and reuse of the catalyst. Building on the success of the immobilization of chiral phosphoric acid, a more robust phase-tagged BINOL-based phosphoric acid organocatalyst was developed. By taking advantage of a tetraarylphosphonium salt as a solubility-controlling group, a widely-used BINOL-based phosphoric acid, TRIP (3.1), was introduced onto a tetraphenylphosphonium salt to produce a phosphonium salt-tagged phosphoric acid catalyst 3.3e. After systematic optimizations of reaction conditions, it was found that the catalyst 3.3e with PF6 as counteranion exhibited the best performance in terms of enantioselectivity. Catalyst 3.3e was proved to be highly effective in asymmetric Friedel-Crafts reaction of indoles because it was shown to be recyclable and reusable after six cycles without loss of catalytic activity. Based on our previous studies on the reduction of unsaturated thioesters catalyzed by (BDP)CuH, further investigation of ligand effects revealed that in addition to BDP, dppf was also an effective ligand for the simple reduction of 5.8. In the stoichiometric reduction of unsaturated thioester 5.8, dppe and dppf were both efficient ligands for copper hydride that could convert 5.8 to aldehyde 5.18 in the presence of TMSCl, without the formation of the undesired enol ester 5.17, which was a major product when stoichiometric amounts of Stryker’s reagent was employed. When 5.30 bearing both a saturated and unsaturated thioester was reduced under these conditions, only the enethioate functional group underwent reaction to yield the mono-reduced product 5.31 while the saturated thioester functional group remained inert. The desymmetrizing reductive aldol reactions of symmetrical keto-enethioates 6.19, 6.22, 6.24 and 6.26 catalyzed by in situ generated chiral copper hydride were investigated. After a screening of the reaction conditions, TaniaPhos L8 was found to be the most effective chiral ligand to achieve high ee and yields. Under the optimum reaction condition (5 mol% Cu(OAc)-H2O and L8 with 2.0 eq. PhSiH3), a range of keto-enethioates smoothly underwent desymmetrizing reductive aldol cyclizations, offering bicyclic or polycyclic β-hydroxythioesters (6.28a-6.32a, 6.37a-6.47a) in 35- 84% yield and 30-97% ee with high diastereoselectivity. The addition of 5 mol% of bipyridine as additive resulted in an accelerated reaction rate in all of the reductions of keto-enethioates. The crystal structure of the L8-copper bromide complex allowed the rationalization of the major enantiomer (eg. 6.48a), in which all of the substituents are cis, to be a result of a reductively generated (Z)-thioester enolate reacting through a Zimmerman-Traxler transition state. This stereochemical outcome is in contrast to the reduction of the analogous oxoesters, which yield trans β-hydroxyesters, (eg. 6.54b), as the major products. Several proposals to explain the divergent stereochemistry, including the predominance of a Zimmerman-Traxler transition state of (E)-enolates or subsequent retroaldol rearrangements, were discussed. The retroaldol rearrangement has been observed in the conversion of 6.48a to 6.57c, in which there was retention of the configuration at C5 and a perfect conservation of enantiomeric purity.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47849708-
dc.subject.lcshAsymmetric synthesis.-
dc.subject.lcshCatalysis.-
dc.subject.lcshOrganic compounds - Synthesis.-
dc.titleAsymmetric reactions induced by phase-tagged phosphoric acid organocatalysts and copper hydride-catalyzed reductions of unsaturatedthioesters-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4784970-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineChemistry-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4784970-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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