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postgraduate thesis: Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis

TitleMolecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis
Authors
Issue Date2011
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
Citation
Lau, W. R. [劉永棠]. (2011). Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4784965
AbstractThe global emergence of drug resistance is posing increasing difficulties in the public health control and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are regarded as having a pivotal role among the antimicrobial agents in multidrug regimens against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Thus, early diagnosis of fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQr) MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) by molecular tests has predictive value for the guidance of TB therapy. The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) indices are valuable parameters to evaluate the activity and efficacy of fluoroquinolones (FQs) based upon the bactericidal effect and prevention of the emergence of resistance. In the first part of this study, the potencies of ofloxacin (OFX) and moxifloxacin (MXF) against clinical isolates of MDR-TB in terms of their PK/PD indices (Cmax/MIC90, AUC/MIC90, Cmax/MPC90 and AUC/MPC90) were investigated and compared. The results revealed that MXF displays higher ratios of PK/PD in vitro and could serve as a promising agent for the treatment of MDR-TB. Molecular tests on resistance genes are reliable and rapid technology for diagnosis of drug-resistant TB which facilitates timely patient management and public health control of TB. In the second part of the study, the feasibility of a PCRsequencing assay for the examination of mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining- region (QRDR) of the gyrase A (gyrA) gene in FQ-resistant (FQr) Mycobacterium tuberculosis in direct clinical specimens was evaluated. As determined by gyrA QRDR DNA sequencing analysis, complete concordance of phenotypic and genotypic outcomes was demonstrated. The results indicate that the molecular assay is an accurate and effective method for the diagnosis of FQr TB and allows identification of mixed resistant variants in the same patient. GyrA mutations that associated with FQr in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were clustered in hotspot codons 88, 90, 91 and 94, corroborating other reports. We also detected a novel gyrA Ala74Ser mutation in M. tuberculosis directly from the respiratory specimens by using the PCR-DNA sequencing assay. In the third part of this study, the functional effect of the Ala74Ser mutant was verified through study of the DNA supercoiling inhibitory activities of OFX and MXF against the recombinant DNA gyrase. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of FQs against the DNA supercoiling activities of the recombinant DNA gyrase complex reconstituted with gyrA Ala74Ser were eight-fold and 14-fold greater than the wild-type H37Rv reference strain, and results correlated well with their phenotypic drug susceptibilities. Besides, a combination of gyrA mutations (Glu21Gln, Ser95Thr and Gly668Asp) was also characterized to be non-functional polymorphisms. The impact of the gyrA Ala74Ser mutation on drug binding affinity was elucidated through a crystal structure model of the gyrA-MXF-DNA cleavage complex. Alanine at position 74 of gyrA in M. tuberculosis, which corresponds to the alanine at position 67 of gyrA in Escherichia coli, is an amino acid lying in the α3 helix domain which forms a hydrophobic interface between the gyrA-gyrA dimer. Perturbation of the gyrA-gyrA dimer interface caused by the Ala74Ser mutation probably disturbs the putative drug binding pocket, and leads to the reduction of the binding affinity of FQ due to the distance effect. This is the first report verifying that gyrA Ala74Ser mutation alone is responsible for FQr in M. tuberculosis.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
SubjectMycobacterium tuberculosis - Molecular aspects.
Quinolone antibacterial agents.
Drug resistance.
Dept/ProgramMicrobiology

 

DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor.authorLau, Wing-tong, Ricky.-
dc.contributor.author劉永棠.-
dc.date.issued2011-
dc.identifier.citationLau, W. R. [劉永棠]. (2011). Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis. (Thesis). University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4784965-
dc.description.abstractThe global emergence of drug resistance is posing increasing difficulties in the public health control and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are regarded as having a pivotal role among the antimicrobial agents in multidrug regimens against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Thus, early diagnosis of fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQr) MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) by molecular tests has predictive value for the guidance of TB therapy. The pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) indices are valuable parameters to evaluate the activity and efficacy of fluoroquinolones (FQs) based upon the bactericidal effect and prevention of the emergence of resistance. In the first part of this study, the potencies of ofloxacin (OFX) and moxifloxacin (MXF) against clinical isolates of MDR-TB in terms of their PK/PD indices (Cmax/MIC90, AUC/MIC90, Cmax/MPC90 and AUC/MPC90) were investigated and compared. The results revealed that MXF displays higher ratios of PK/PD in vitro and could serve as a promising agent for the treatment of MDR-TB. Molecular tests on resistance genes are reliable and rapid technology for diagnosis of drug-resistant TB which facilitates timely patient management and public health control of TB. In the second part of the study, the feasibility of a PCRsequencing assay for the examination of mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining- region (QRDR) of the gyrase A (gyrA) gene in FQ-resistant (FQr) Mycobacterium tuberculosis in direct clinical specimens was evaluated. As determined by gyrA QRDR DNA sequencing analysis, complete concordance of phenotypic and genotypic outcomes was demonstrated. The results indicate that the molecular assay is an accurate and effective method for the diagnosis of FQr TB and allows identification of mixed resistant variants in the same patient. GyrA mutations that associated with FQr in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were clustered in hotspot codons 88, 90, 91 and 94, corroborating other reports. We also detected a novel gyrA Ala74Ser mutation in M. tuberculosis directly from the respiratory specimens by using the PCR-DNA sequencing assay. In the third part of this study, the functional effect of the Ala74Ser mutant was verified through study of the DNA supercoiling inhibitory activities of OFX and MXF against the recombinant DNA gyrase. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of FQs against the DNA supercoiling activities of the recombinant DNA gyrase complex reconstituted with gyrA Ala74Ser were eight-fold and 14-fold greater than the wild-type H37Rv reference strain, and results correlated well with their phenotypic drug susceptibilities. Besides, a combination of gyrA mutations (Glu21Gln, Ser95Thr and Gly668Asp) was also characterized to be non-functional polymorphisms. The impact of the gyrA Ala74Ser mutation on drug binding affinity was elucidated through a crystal structure model of the gyrA-MXF-DNA cleavage complex. Alanine at position 74 of gyrA in M. tuberculosis, which corresponds to the alanine at position 67 of gyrA in Escherichia coli, is an amino acid lying in the α3 helix domain which forms a hydrophobic interface between the gyrA-gyrA dimer. Perturbation of the gyrA-gyrA dimer interface caused by the Ala74Ser mutation probably disturbs the putative drug binding pocket, and leads to the reduction of the binding affinity of FQ due to the distance effect. This is the first report verifying that gyrA Ala74Ser mutation alone is responsible for FQr in M. tuberculosis.-
dc.languageeng-
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)-
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)-
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.-
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License-
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47849654-
dc.subject.lcshMycobacterium tuberculosis - Molecular aspects.-
dc.subject.lcshQuinolone antibacterial agents.-
dc.subject.lcshDrug resistance.-
dc.titleMolecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis-
dc.typePG_Thesis-
dc.identifier.hkulb4784965-
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy-
dc.description.thesislevelDoctoral-
dc.description.thesisdisciplineMicrobiology-
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version-
dc.identifier.doi10.5353/th_b4784965-
dc.date.hkucongregation2012-

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