File Download
 
 
Supplementary

Postgraduate Thesis: Induction of epstein-barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle and its cellular consequences in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies
  • Basic View
  • Metadata View
  • XML View
TitleInduction of epstein-barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle and its cellular consequences in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies
 
AuthorsHui, Kwai-fung.
許貴鋒.
 
Issue Date2012
 
PublisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
Abstract In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies, the virus is harbored in every tumor cell and persists in a tightly latent form (latency I, II or III) expressing a limited number of viral latent proteins. Induction of EBV lytic cycle, which triggers expression of a much larger number of viral proteins, may lead to therapeutic effects against EBV-associated cancers. We previously found that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a FDA-approved histone deacetylase inhibitor, induced EBV lytic cycle and mediated enhanced cell death in EBV-positive gastric carcinoma cells (latency II). In this thesis, we sought to investigate SAHA’s induction of EBV lytic cycle and its cellular consequences in EBV-associated epithelial malignancies, with particular focus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) due to its strong association with EBV and high prevalence in southern Chinese populations. SAHA effected strong induction of EBV lytic cycle in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies, including gastric carcinoma and NPC, as evidenced by strong expression of EBV lytic proteins, replication of viral DNA and production of infectious viral particles. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that up to 70% EBV-positive epithelial cancers expressed EBV lytic proteins following treatment with micromolar concentrations of SAHA. However, SAHA could not induce EBV lytic cycle in NK lymphoma cells (both NPC and NK lymphoma express EBV latency II pattern), indicating preferential viral lytic induction in epithelial rather than lymphoid malignancies. EBV lytic cycle induction in NPC by SAHA required activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-) and acetylation of non-histone protein but required neither phosphatidylinositol 3’-kinase (PI3K), MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK), c-Jun aminoterminal kinase (JNK) nor p38 stress mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Conflicting observations regarding the effect of EBV lytic cycle induction on apoptosis were reported. Thus, we investigated the relationship between EBV lytic cycle induction and apoptosis in NPC following treatment with SAHA. EBV-positive NPC showed a higher percentage of apoptosis and proteolytic cleavage of PARP, caspases-3, -7 and -9 over EBV-negative NPC and greater than 85% of NPC cells co-expressed EBV immediate-early (Zta), early (BMRF1) or late (gp350/220) lytic proteins and cleaved caspase-3. Tracking of expression of these lytic proteins over time demonstrated that NPC proceeded to apoptosis following EBV lytic cycle induction, contrary to the previously reported anti-apoptotic effect of EBV lytic proteins in Burkitt lymphoma. Analyses of cleaved caspase-3 expression upon RNAi knockdown and exogenous expression of Zta further supported that EBV lytic cycle directly led to apoptosis of EBV-positive NPC cells. Interestingly, inhibition of EBV DNA replication and late lytic protein expression by phosphonoformic acid did not impact on SAHA’s induced cell death in NPC, indicating that early rather than late phase of EBV lytic cycle contributed to the apoptotic effect. Finally, in vivo effects of SAHA on EBV lytic cycle induction and tumor growth suppression were observed in NPC tumors established in nude mice. In conclusion, activation of EBV lytic cycle from latent cycle in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies including NPC by SAHA effected apoptosis and tumor growth suppression of the cancer cells and provided experimental evidence for virus-targeted therapy against EBV-positive cancers.
 
AdvisorsChiang, AKS
Tsao, GSW
 
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy
 
SubjectViruses - Reproduction.
Epstein-barr virus.
Nasopharynx - Cancer.
 
Dept/ProgramPaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
 
DC FieldValue
dc.contributor.advisorChiang, AKS
 
dc.contributor.advisorTsao, GSW
 
dc.contributor.authorHui, Kwai-fung.
 
dc.contributor.author許貴鋒.
 
dc.date.hkucongregation2012
 
dc.date.issued2012
 
dc.description.abstract In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies, the virus is harbored in every tumor cell and persists in a tightly latent form (latency I, II or III) expressing a limited number of viral latent proteins. Induction of EBV lytic cycle, which triggers expression of a much larger number of viral proteins, may lead to therapeutic effects against EBV-associated cancers. We previously found that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a FDA-approved histone deacetylase inhibitor, induced EBV lytic cycle and mediated enhanced cell death in EBV-positive gastric carcinoma cells (latency II). In this thesis, we sought to investigate SAHA’s induction of EBV lytic cycle and its cellular consequences in EBV-associated epithelial malignancies, with particular focus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) due to its strong association with EBV and high prevalence in southern Chinese populations. SAHA effected strong induction of EBV lytic cycle in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies, including gastric carcinoma and NPC, as evidenced by strong expression of EBV lytic proteins, replication of viral DNA and production of infectious viral particles. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that up to 70% EBV-positive epithelial cancers expressed EBV lytic proteins following treatment with micromolar concentrations of SAHA. However, SAHA could not induce EBV lytic cycle in NK lymphoma cells (both NPC and NK lymphoma express EBV latency II pattern), indicating preferential viral lytic induction in epithelial rather than lymphoid malignancies. EBV lytic cycle induction in NPC by SAHA required activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-) and acetylation of non-histone protein but required neither phosphatidylinositol 3’-kinase (PI3K), MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK), c-Jun aminoterminal kinase (JNK) nor p38 stress mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Conflicting observations regarding the effect of EBV lytic cycle induction on apoptosis were reported. Thus, we investigated the relationship between EBV lytic cycle induction and apoptosis in NPC following treatment with SAHA. EBV-positive NPC showed a higher percentage of apoptosis and proteolytic cleavage of PARP, caspases-3, -7 and -9 over EBV-negative NPC and greater than 85% of NPC cells co-expressed EBV immediate-early (Zta), early (BMRF1) or late (gp350/220) lytic proteins and cleaved caspase-3. Tracking of expression of these lytic proteins over time demonstrated that NPC proceeded to apoptosis following EBV lytic cycle induction, contrary to the previously reported anti-apoptotic effect of EBV lytic proteins in Burkitt lymphoma. Analyses of cleaved caspase-3 expression upon RNAi knockdown and exogenous expression of Zta further supported that EBV lytic cycle directly led to apoptosis of EBV-positive NPC cells. Interestingly, inhibition of EBV DNA replication and late lytic protein expression by phosphonoformic acid did not impact on SAHA’s induced cell death in NPC, indicating that early rather than late phase of EBV lytic cycle contributed to the apoptotic effect. Finally, in vivo effects of SAHA on EBV lytic cycle induction and tumor growth suppression were observed in NPC tumors established in nude mice. In conclusion, activation of EBV lytic cycle from latent cycle in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies including NPC by SAHA effected apoptosis and tumor growth suppression of the cancer cells and provided experimental evidence for virus-targeted therapy against EBV-positive cancers.
 
dc.description.naturepublished_or_final_version
 
dc.description.thesisdisciplinePaediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
 
dc.description.thesisleveldoctoral
 
dc.description.thesisnameDoctor of Philosophy
 
dc.identifier.hkulb4784957
 
dc.languageeng
 
dc.publisherThe University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)
 
dc.relation.ispartofHKU Theses Online (HKUTO)
 
dc.rightsThe author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.
 
dc.rightsCreative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License
 
dc.source.urihttp://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47849575
 
dc.subject.lcshViruses - Reproduction.
 
dc.subject.lcshEpstein-barr virus.
 
dc.subject.lcshNasopharynx - Cancer.
 
dc.titleInduction of epstein-barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle and its cellular consequences in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies
 
dc.typePG_Thesis
 
<?xml encoding="utf-8" version="1.0"?>
<item><contributor.advisor>Chiang, AKS</contributor.advisor>
<contributor.advisor>Tsao, GSW</contributor.advisor>
<contributor.author>Hui, Kwai-fung.</contributor.author>
<contributor.author>&#35377;&#36020;&#37586;.</contributor.author>
<date.issued>2012</date.issued>
<description.abstract>&#65279;

 In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies, the virus is harbored in every tumor cell and persists in a tightly latent form (latency I, II or III) expressing a limited number of viral latent proteins. Induction of EBV lytic cycle, which triggers expression of a much larger number of viral proteins, may lead to therapeutic effects against EBV-associated cancers. We previously found that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a FDA-approved histone deacetylase inhibitor, induced EBV lytic cycle and mediated enhanced cell death in EBV-positive gastric carcinoma cells (latency II). In this thesis, we sought to investigate SAHA&#8217;s induction of EBV lytic cycle and its cellular consequences in EBV-associated epithelial malignancies, with particular focus on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) due to its strong association with EBV and high prevalence in southern Chinese populations.

SAHA effected strong induction of EBV lytic cycle in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies, including gastric carcinoma and NPC, as evidenced by strong expression of EBV lytic proteins, replication of viral DNA and production of infectious viral particles. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that up to 70% EBV-positive epithelial cancers expressed EBV lytic proteins following treatment with micromolar concentrations of SAHA. However, SAHA could not induce EBV lytic cycle in NK lymphoma cells (both NPC and NK lymphoma express EBV latency II pattern), indicating preferential viral lytic induction in epithelial rather than lymphoid malignancies. EBV lytic cycle induction in NPC by SAHA required activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-&#61540;) and acetylation of non-histone protein but required neither phosphatidylinositol 3&#8217;-kinase (PI3K), MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK), c-Jun aminoterminal kinase (JNK) nor p38 stress mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. 

Conflicting observations regarding the effect of EBV lytic cycle induction on apoptosis were reported. Thus, we investigated the relationship between EBV lytic cycle induction and apoptosis in NPC following treatment with SAHA. EBV-positive NPC showed a higher percentage of apoptosis and proteolytic cleavage of PARP, caspases-3, -7 and -9 over EBV-negative NPC and greater than 85% of NPC cells co-expressed EBV immediate-early (Zta), early (BMRF1) or late (gp350/220) lytic proteins and cleaved caspase-3. Tracking of expression of these lytic proteins over time demonstrated that NPC proceeded to apoptosis following EBV lytic cycle induction, contrary to the previously reported anti-apoptotic effect of EBV lytic proteins in Burkitt lymphoma. Analyses of cleaved caspase-3 expression upon RNAi knockdown and exogenous expression of Zta further supported that EBV lytic cycle directly led to apoptosis of EBV-positive NPC cells. Interestingly, inhibition of EBV DNA replication and late lytic protein expression by phosphonoformic acid did not impact on SAHA&#8217;s induced cell death in NPC, indicating that early rather than late phase of EBV lytic cycle contributed to the apoptotic effect. Finally, in vivo effects of SAHA on EBV lytic cycle induction and tumor growth suppression were observed in NPC tumors established in nude mice. 

In conclusion, activation of EBV lytic cycle from latent cycle in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies including NPC by SAHA effected apoptosis and tumor growth suppression of the cancer cells and provided experimental evidence for virus-targeted therapy against EBV-positive cancers.</description.abstract>
<language>eng</language>
<publisher>The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong)</publisher>
<relation.ispartof>HKU Theses Online (HKUTO)</relation.ispartof>
<rights>The author retains all proprietary rights, (such as patent rights) and the right to use in future works.</rights>
<rights>Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License</rights>
<source.uri>http://hub.hku.hk/bib/B47849575</source.uri>
<subject.lcsh>Viruses - Reproduction.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Epstein-barr virus.</subject.lcsh>
<subject.lcsh>Nasopharynx - Cancer.</subject.lcsh>
<title>Induction of epstein-barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle and its cellular consequences in EBV-positive epithelial malignancies</title>
<type>PG_Thesis</type>
<identifier.hkul>b4784957</identifier.hkul>
<description.thesisname>Doctor of Philosophy</description.thesisname>
<description.thesislevel>doctoral</description.thesislevel>
<description.thesisdiscipline>Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine</description.thesisdiscipline>
<description.nature>published_or_final_version</description.nature>
<date.hkucongregation>2012</date.hkucongregation>
<bitstream.url>http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/174515/1/FullText.pdf</bitstream.url>
</item>